OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER 11 Understand Translation Exposure How does translation exposure arise? Definition How do the Current and Temporal Methods work? What are the U.S. rules? Calculation of exchange gains/losses 1 Chapter 11 - Translation Exposure Arises because financial statements of foreign affiliates which are typically stated in foreign currencies need to be restated (translated) in terms of the currency of the
parent Main purpose of translation - preparation of consolidated financial statements 2 Translated Statements Income Statement Balance Sheet Consolidated statement of cash flows is prepared from consolidated statements of income and balance sheet 3 Translation Exposure Definition - Potential for an increase or decrease on the parents net worth and
reported net income caused by a change in the exchange rate Operating exposure is more important (for financial managers) but in the real world translation exposure is quite important 4 Translation Methods Methods we will discuss in class: Current Rate - most prevalent in the world Temporal Method 5 Current Rate Method Assets and liabilities use current rate
Income statement - use actual exchange rate for the day when revenues, expenses, etc. were incurred or use an appropriate weighted average exchange rate Dividends - use exchange rate in effect on date of payment 6 Current Rate Method - Continued Equity - common stock and paid-in capital accounts use an appropriate historical rate In the U.S., translation gains / losses are put in a special account (Cumulative Translation Adjustment - CTA). When foreign affiliate is sold or liquidated gains or losses become realized
7 Temporal Method (similar to the Monetary/Nonmonetary Method) Monetary assets (cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable, etc.) and monetary liabilities (current liabilities and long-term debt) use current exchange rate Nonmonetary assets (inventory, fixed assets, etc.) use appropriate historical rate Dividends - use exchange rate in effect on date of payment 8 Temporal Method - Continued Income statement - In general use average
exchange rate for period. For depreciation and cost of goods sold use appropriate historical rate Common stock and paid-in capital accounts use appropriate historical rate Gains / losses from translation go to current consolidated income 9 U.S. Rules For each affiliate must figure out the functional currency Functional currency - currency of the primary economic environment in which the affiliate operates and generates cash flows Company could have one subsidiary having
the dollar as the functional currency and another with the local currency as the functional currency. 10 U.S. Rules - Continued From page 312 of Multinational Business Finance If the financial statements of the foreign affiliate are in U.S. dollars no translation is required If the financial statements of the foreign affiliate are in the local currency and the local currency is the functional currency use the current rate method 11 U.S. Rules - Continued If the financial statements of the foreign affiliate are
in the local currency and the dollar is the functional currency use (remeasured by) temporal method If the financial statements of the foreign affiliate are in the local currency and neither the local currency nor the dollar is the functional currency, then financial statements are first remeasured into the functional currency by the temporal method and then translated by the current rate method 12 U.S. Rules - Continued If a country has cumulative inflation of approximately 100 % over a 3 year period must use the temporal method
13 Examples of Translation Methods Exchange rates: Plant and equipment, common stock, long-term debt, and inventory were acquired when the exchange rate was $ .06 / peso Right before devaluation the exchange rate was $ .05 / peso (at end of period) At start of the new period the rate is $ .04 / peso 14 Current Rate Method Example Accounts
Cash Pesos Value Before in Value After in $ (rate) $ (rate) 6000 300 (.05) 240 (.04) Accounts Receivable Inventory 12000 600 (.05)
2700 2160 CTA Total 54000 Value After in $ (rate) 120 (.04) 16 Notes to Previous Example
Dollar retained earnings are the sum of additions to retained earnings each year Assume a prior CTA account of (240) The additional loss of $ 420 = cash (-$ 60) + a.r. (-$ 120) + inv (-$ 120) + net plant (-$ 240) + c. liab. (+$ 30) + l.t. debt (+$ 90) 17 Exchange Gain or Loss Formula for exchange gain or loss: ($ exposed assets - $ exposed liabilities) x (percentage change in the exchange rate) ($ 2700 - $ 600) (-.2) = - $ 420 where exposed means that the $ value changes when the exchange rate changes 18
Temporal Method Example Accounts Cash Pesos Value Before in Value After in $ (rate) $ (rate) 6000 300 (.05) 240 (.04) Accounts Receivable Inventory
1440 (.06) 1440 (.06) Total 54000 3060 2880 19 Example - Continued Accounts
Pesos 3000 Value Before in $ (rate) 150 (.05) Value After in $ (rate) 120 (.04) Current L. L.T. Debt 9000
450 (.05) 360 (.04) Capital St. 6000 360 (.06) 360 (.06) Ret. Earn. 36000
2100 2100 Translation gain / loss Total 54000 (60) 3060 2880 20
Notes to the Example The translation gain or loss would not be shown as a separate item. Retained earnings would be $ 2040. Translation loss = ( $ 900 - $ 600) (-.2) = - $ 60 21 Comparison of Temporal and Current Rate Methods Note in this example the two methods give very different magnitudes of losses Can also have the situation where there are accounting losses (gains) but operating gains (losses)
22 Managing Translation Exposure Balance Sheet Hedge - make $ exposed assets = $ exposed liabilities ( no matter what the exchange rate does there will be no accounting losses or gains) Creating a balance sheet hedge may and probably will reduce operating efficiency (may for example have too much inventory) 23 Managing - Continued Under the temporal method in this example could borrow 6000 pesos and convert to
dollars or buy inventory or plant and equipment Under the current rate method could borrow 42000 pesos and convert to dollars 24 Rules in Other Countries Many countries make a distinction between an integrated foreign entity (foreign affiliate is an extension of the parent and cash flows of affiliate are highly related to cash flows of parent) and a self-sustaining foreign entity (basically cash flows of local affiliate are independent of those of the parent) 25
Rules - Continued In many countries integrated foreign entities use the temporal method and self-sustaining entities use current rate method 26 Homework - Chapter 11 # 8 (do both the current rate method and the temporal method) 27
Piet Mondriaan, Compositie met geel rood, zwart, blauw en grijs, 1920 c/oPictoright Amsterdam/Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. Cornelis Jouke Blaauw, voorzittersstoel en vergaderstoel voor School voor Kunstnijverheid in Haarlem waar hij docent Bouwkunde was, 1918-1919. Coll.
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