Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Chapter 11 Testing and Individual Differences a.k.a. Intelligence If a rabbit defined intelligence the way man does, then the most intelligent animal would be a rabbit, followed by the animal most willing to obey the commands of a rabbit. -Robert Brault, writer (b. 1938) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Lets take a quick intelligence test Handout 11-10

Life cannot be classified in terms of a simple neurological ladder, with human beings at the top; it is more accurate to talk of different forms of intelligence, each with its strengths and weaknesses. This point was well demonstrated in the minutes before last December's tsunami, when tourists grabbed their digital cameras and ran after the ebbing surf, and all the 'dumb' animals made for the hills. -B.R. Myers Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Brainstorm Discuss the following questions with your

new aisle partner 1.How do you define intelligence? 2.What does intelligence look like? 3.How can we measure it? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Standardized tests Standardized test: The same test is given in the same way (questions, scoring, and interpretation) to all test takers Here are the subtests on a common standardized test: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Standardization and Norms Scientists use statistics to establish a normal (bell) curve on most tests SAT: 1500ish is the midpoint Normal range Scores falling near the middle of a normal distribution (within one standard deviation--the middle 68.2 percent) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

Distribution of 2010 SAT scores Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Validity and Reliability Validity When a test measures what it claims to measure Face validity: does it test proper material?

Is it testing the RIGHT content? I cant give a history test in this class. Make sure the test is on the right chapter. Have you ever been tested on material you hadnt been taught? Content validity: does it represent the material? Is it testing ALL the content? I cant make every question about repression. Have you ever had a test that seemed to overemphasize certain concepts from the chapter and ignore other

concepts? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Validity, continued Item analysis: does each question truly test knowledge of the material? Is each question good? I cant make every answer choice repression. Have you ever answered a question where a trained monkey could have gotten the right answer? Criterion (predictive) validity: does doing well on the

test equate to success in another place? High SAT scores have some correlation to college success If you get As on all my tests, you shouldnt get a 1 on the AP test. Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Validity and Reliability Reliability The test yields the same results over time Test-retest reliability (different SAT scores by the same student shouldnt vary by much) Split-half reliability (compare odd scores to even

scoresused when test-retest isnt available) Inter-rater reliability: how similarly two different test scorers would score a test (AP essays) The Morris Shoe Size Intelligence test is very reliable. IQ=Shoe size x 10 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 On your notes When I say go, you have 15 seconds to draw as many ts as you can. Lets look at your results in a histogram. How did you get high scores?

Is this a good measure of intelligence? What does it measure? What constitutes a t? (interrater reliability) Does this test have criterion validity? Lets try it again. 15 seconds. Lets chart how much your score went up. Does this have test-retest reliability? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Ethics and Standards in Testing Ethical concerns related to testing involve: 1. The confidentiality of the test results 2. Stereotype threat

3. Cultural bias RUNNER: MARATHON :: A) envoy: embassy B) martyr: massacre C) oarsman: regatta D) referee: tournament E) horse: stable BITCH test The Chitling Test Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cultural aspects of intelligence

We know that you highly esteem the kind of learning taught in those colleges, and that the maintenance of our young men while with you, would be very expensive to you. We are convinced therefore that you mean to do us good by your proposal, and we thank you heartily. But you who are wise must know that different nations have different conceptions of things, and you will therefore not take it amiss if our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same with yours. We have had some experience of it: several of our young people were formerly brought up at the colleges of the Northern Provinces; they were instructed in all your sciences; but when they came back to us they were bad runners, ignorant of every means of living in the woods, unable to bear either cold or hunger, knew neither how to build a cabin, take a deer or kill an

enemy, spoke our language imperfectly, were therefore neither fit for hunters, warriors, or counselors; they were totally good for nothing. We are not the less obliged by your kind offer, though we decline accepting it; and to show our grateful sense of it, if the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons, we will take great care of their education, instruct them in all we know, and make men of them. Native American tribal leader, as recounted by Benjamin Franklin Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 How is Intelligence Measured?

Intelligence testing has a history of controversy, but most psychologists now view intelligence as a normally distributed trait that can be measured by performance on a variety of tasks Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 How is Intelligence Measured? Binet-Simon Test calculated a childs mental age and compared it to his or her chronological age

In America, testing became widespread for the assessment of Army recruits, immigrants, and schoolchildren The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is the most respected of the new American tests of intelligence Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 How is Intelligence Measured? Intelligence quotient A numerical score on an intelligence test, originally computed by dividing a

persons mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100 The original IQ calculation was abandoned in favor of standard scores based on the normal distribution Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chart IQs by standard deviation Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Exceptional Child Mental retardation (intellectual disability)

Often conceived as representing the lower 2% of the IQ range Giftedness Often conceived as representing the upper 2% of the IQ range Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Are the Components of Intelligence? Some psychologists believe that the essence of

intelligence is a single, general factor, while others believe intelligence is best described as a collection of distinct abilities Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Psychometric Theories of Intelligence Spearmans g Factor the main factor underlying all intelligent mental activity the all-positive correlation between all mental tests, no matter the subject

Most IQ tests measure g Savants would have very low g Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Are the Components of Intelligence? Savant syndrome Those with a remarkable talent in one area -What is intelligence? Aptitude? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

Psychometric Theories of Intelligence Crystallized intelligence The knowledge a person has acquired, plus the ability to access that knowledge Fluid intelligence The ability to see complex relationships and solve new problems Which one grows over time? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cognitive Theories of Intelligence

Sternbergs Triarchic Theory Gardners Multiple Intelligences Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sternbergs Triarchic Theory Practical Intelligence Ability to cope with the environment; street smarts

Analytical Intelligence Creative Intelligence Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sternbergs Triarchic Theory Practical Intelligence Analytical Intelligence

Creative Intelligence Ability to analyze problems and find correct answers; ability measured by most IQ tests also called logical reasoning Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

Sternbergs Triarchic Theory Practical Intelligence Analytical Intelligence Creative Intelligence helps people see new relationships among concepts; involves insight Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

Gardners Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Often measured on IQ tests with reading comprehension and vocabulary tests Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic

Interpersonal Intrapersonal Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gardners Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Often measured on IQ tests with analogies, math problems and logic problems

Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gardners Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical

Ability to form mental images of objects and think about their relationships in space Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gardners Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical

Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Ability to perceive and create patterns of rhythms and pitches Interpersonal Intrapersonal Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gardners Multiple Intelligences

Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Ability for controlled movement and coordination Intrapersonal Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

Gardners Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Ability to understand other peoples emotions, motives

and actions Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gardners Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Ability to know oneself

and to develop a sense of identity Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gardners Two New Intelligences Naturalistic intelligence--environmental Existential intelligence--spiritual Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Think back to the triarchic theory What were the three types of intelligences?

practical, analytical, creative Can all of Gardners 7 intelligences fit in these 3? Is it more useful to separate out the intelligences? Could we separate them out even more? Would THAT be useful? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Limits to MI theory All seven forms of intelligence are not of equal importance and value. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences have no specific tests to measure the seven intelligences.

it is unlikely that each of Gardners intelligences could operate "via a different set of neural mechanismsin other words, they are not separate in the brain. Gardner's theory expands the definition of intelligence beyond usefulness. Gardner's ideas are based more on reasoning and intuition than on the results of empirical research studies. To date there have been no published studies that offer evidence of the validity of the multiple intelligences. (Waterhouse 2006) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

The man himself "MI theory has few enthusiasts among psychometricians or others of a traditional psychological background" because they require "psychometric or experimental evidence that allows one to prove the existence of the several intelligences. Howard Gardner So, are multiple intelligences real? Is the idea of MI useful? -learning styles? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

BRAIN BREAK: Lets take the Armys beta test Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Do Psychologists Explain IQ Differences Among Groups? While most psychologists agree that both heredity and environment affect intelligence, they disagree on

the source of IQ differences among racial and social groups Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Intelligence should be a bell curve... Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Do Psychologists Explain IQ Differences Among Groups? Hereditarian arguments say intelligence is substantially influenced by genetics

Environmental approaches argue that intelligence can be dramatically shaped by influences such as Health Economics Education Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Heritability and Group Differences Heritability Amount of trait variation within a group (raised under the same conditions) that can be attributed to genetic differences

a heritability of 1 indicates that all variation in the trait in question is genetic, and a heritability of 0 indicates that none of the variation is genetic. Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Heritability of IQ A 1994 review in Behavior Genetics based on identical/fraternal twin studies found that heritability is as high as 0.80 in general cognitive ability but it also varies based on the trait, with .60 for verbal

tests, .50 for spatial and speed-of-processing tests, and only .40 for memory tests. According to a 2014 Kings College study, about 62% of the individual differences in academic achievement could be attributed to genetic factors, Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Heritability and Group Differences Research has also shown that racial and class differences in IQ scores can be eliminated by environmental changes

Beware the self-fulfilling prophecy Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Can intelligence improve over time? Yes. The Flynn Effect is a significant rise (about 25%) in intelligence test scores from 1930 to present. Possible causes: 1. Schooling and test familiarity 2. Better nutrition 3. More stimulating environment 4. Eradication of many diseases (e.g. malaria) 5. Elimination of many low test scores

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Can intelligence be taught? Yes, and programs focus on five aspects. 1. Thinking strategies (e.g. pre-reading) 2. Metacognition (monitoring own thinking) 3. Dispositions (effort=reward; Mindset) 4. Distributed cognition (using symbolic supports like graphic organizers & mnemonic devices) 5. Transfer (applying concepts other places) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

Another type of intelligence Emotional intelligence (handout 11-9) Means: female=131; male=125 High scale scores are associated with greater optimism, less depression, less impulsivity. They also predicted first-year college grades, even though they were found to be unrelated to cognitive ability. Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/16/

opinion/16kristof.html?_r=1 Here's an interesting follow-up piece, including suggested reading: http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/ 15/raising-our-iq/? _php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 11 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

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