Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Biomes Bellringer Chapter 6; Section 1 Objectives Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Explain how temperature and

precipitation determine which plants grow in an area. Explain how latitude and altitude affect which plants grow in an area. I. What is a Biome? Earth is covered by many types of ecosystems ecologists group them into larger areas called Biomes. Biome a large region characterized

by a specific type of climate and certain types of plants and animal communities -each biome is made up of many individual ecosystems A. Biomes and Vegetation Biomes are described by their vegetation because plants that grow in an area determine the other organisms that can live there

Plants have particular characteristics or specialized structures called adaptations that allow the plants to survive in that biome -these adaptations include size, shape, color Plants help define biomes -Plants in the tundra are short because they cant obtain enough water to grow larger, and they have a short summer growing season

-Desert plants do not have leaves, instead they have specialized structures to conserve and retain water B. Biomes and Climate Biomes are determined by plant life, but the climate determines the plants

Climate the weather conditions such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, and winds in an area over a long period of time World Terrestrial Biomes Biomes and Climate

-Temperature and Precipitation are important factors that determine a regions climate Most organisms are adapted to live within a particular range of temperatures and will not survive at temperatures too far above or below their range Precipitation limits organisms that are found in a biome Temperature and Precipitation Climate

-all organisms need water and the larger the organism, the more water it needs -biomes with little rainfall cannot support large tree communities The higher the temperature and precipitation, the taller and denser the vegetation is

Climate varies with latitude and altitude Latitude and Altitude Latitude the distance north or south of

the equator measured in degrees Altitude the height of an object above sea level Climate gets colder as latitude and altitude increase Between 30-60deg north latitude and 3060 deg south latitude is where most of the food in the world is grown. Latitude and Altitude Now, can you:

Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Explain how temperature and precipitation determine which plants grow in an area. Explain how latitude and altitude affect which plants grow in an area. Bellringer Forest Biomes

What is a characteristic of a tropical rain forest? A plant or animal found there? An adaptation of that plant or animal? What is a characteristic of temperate deciduous forest? A plant or animal and its adaptation?

Chapter 6; Section 2 Objectives List three characteristics of tropical rain forests. Describe both a forest plant and animal and its specific adaptation Synthesize how present day forest

organisms may have adapted and undergone natural selection and evolution in order to survive Recommend actions to minimize affectation of human activity on forest biomes. The Titan Arum (Corpse) Flower The largest, smelliest flower

in the world originates in the tropical rain forest. Why might it have adapted to stink? II. Forest Biomes

A. Tropical Rain Forests The forest biomes are the most widespread and the most diverse Tropical Rain Forests are located in a belt around the earth near the equator -help regulate the world climate and play important roles in the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon cycles Tropical Rain Forests

always humid and warm and get 200-450cm (15 ft) of rain a year -get strong sunlight year round, and maintain a relatively constant temperature -climate is ideal for a wide variety of plants and animals -have more species of plants than any other biome

Tropical Rain Forests Tropical Rain Forests The soil of the tropical rain forest is nutrient-poor, most nutrients are located within the plants themselves rapid decay of plants and animals with the help of decomposers returns nutrients to the soil, but there are so many plants, those nutrients are

rapidly absorbed from the soil Soil In The Tropical Rain Forest -nutrients are removed from soil so efficiently that runoff from rain forests is often as pure as distilled water -when tropical forests are cleared for crops, the lack of nutrients will support crop for only a few seasons

-many trees form above-ground roots called buttresses or braces that grow sideways from the trees to help provide extra support to the tree in the thin soil 4 Main Layers of the Rain Forest Plants grow in different layers in the tropical rain forest Emergent layer the top layer consisting of the tallest trees

-these trees emerge out of the canopy into direct sunlight -animals such as eagles, bats, monkeys, and snakes live here Layers Canopy the primary layer the tall trees form a dense layer that absorbs 95% of the sunlight -can be split into an upper canopy

and a lower canopy -the lower canopy receives even less sunlight than the upper canopy -plants like epiphytes use the entire surface of a tree as a place to live they grow on tall trees for support and grow high in the canopy where their leaves can reach the sunlight

-they also absorb the water and nutrients that run down the tree after it rains -ex. Orchids -most animals live in the canopy because of the abundance of flowers and fruits Here are some tropical rainforest fruits

Kiwi New Zealand epiphyte Mango - Philippines wet Starfruit - Sri Lanka evergreen understory tree Layers -Understory receives very little sunlight and so trees and shrubs adapted to shade grow here

-most plants do not grow more than 3.5m tall -have large, flat leaves to capture the small amount of sunlight Biome with the greatest amount of species diversity -most animals are specialists that use specific resources in particular ways to avoid competition with other animals

-they have amazing adaptations for capturing prey or to escape predators Tropical forests once covered about 20% of Earths surface -today they only cover about 7%

Humans Affect the Tropical Rain Forest every minute of every day 100 acres of tropical forest is cleared for logging operations, agriculture, or oil exploration -habitat destruction occurs when land inhabited by an organism depends on is destroyed, the organism is at risk for disappearing

Important to our future? about 50 million native peoples live in tropical rain forest and they are also threatened by habitat destruction -plants and animals are also threatened by trading plant species found only in tropical forests are valuable and marketable to industries -animals are threatened by exotic-pet trading

B. Temperate Forests Temperate rain forests occur in North America, Australia, and New Zealand -have large amounts of precipitation, high humidity, and moderate temperatures

Temperate Forests -Pacific Northwest is North Americas only temperate rain forests it has moderate temperatures because of the nearby Pacific waters keep temperatures mild and the Olympic mountains supply large amounts of rainfall Temperate Deciduous Forests

Monkey On My Back I will tape a card depicting a forest animal or plant on your back. Do not look at the card or ask anyone what it is. You must CALMLY ask yes or no questions to

your friends to figure out 5 facts about your organism. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kingdom: Anamalia, Plantae, Protista, Fungi Specific Adaptation(s): large eyes, camouflage Its NICHE (job) in the forest ecosystem If it is a producer of consumer Its forest Biome: Tropical Rainforest, Temperate Deciduous or both!

Write your answers on your dry erase card and bring them to me when youve finished. The 1st 5 correct cards get a prize. Did you learn it? List three characteristics of tropical

rain forests. Describe both a forest plant and animal and its specific adaptation Synthesize how present day forest organisms may have adapted and undergone natural selection and evolution in order to survive Recommend actions to minimize affectation of human activity on forest biomes. C. Temperate Deciduous Forests

Temperature deciduous forests trees drop their leaves each fall -once dominated vast regions including parts of North America, Europe, and Asia -located between 30-50 deg north latitude Temperature deciduous forests

range of temperatures can be extreme, and the growing season lasts only 4-6 months -temperatures vary due to a change in seasons -receive 75-125cm (4 ft) of precipitation annually -the rain and snow help decompose dead organic matter such as fallen leaves which contributes to the rich, deep soils

Temperature deciduous forests Plants of the deciduous forests grow in layers too -tall trees such as maple, oak, and birch dominate the forest canopy -small trees and shrubs cover the

understory -the forest floor gets more light than in a tropical forest, so the forest floor is covered with more plants like ferns, herbs, and mosses Plants temperate deciduous forest plants

are adapted to survive seasonal changes -in the fall trees shed their leaves -seeds, bulbs, etc. become dormant in the winter in the spring, as temperatures rise, trees grow new leaves, seeds germinate, etc Animals

animals of the deciduous forest are adapted to use the forest plants for food and shelter -squirrels eat the nuts and seeds and fruits in the treetops -bears feast on the leaves and berries of the forest plants Animals many birds are migratory

because they cannot survive the harsh winters, so they fly south for the winter -animals that do not migrate reduce their activity in the winter so they dont need as much food for energy, like how bears hibernate D. Taiga

Taiga northern coniferous forest that stretches in a broad band across the Northern Hemisphere just below the Arctic Circle -Winters are long 6-10 months and have average temperatures below freezing -The forest floor is dark and often has little vegetation Plants of the Taiga

-Trees seem like straight dead shafts of bark and wood until you look up and see their green tops -Growing season may be as short as 50 days -plant growth is abundant during the summer months because of nearly constant daylight and larger amounts of precipitation

Plants of the Taiga -conifer a tree that has seeds that develop in cones -most confers dont shed their needleshaped leaves which help them survive harsh winters -their narrow shape and waxy-coating help

retain water for when the moisture in the ground is frozen -the trees pointed shape helps it shed snow to the ground so the tree does not become weighed down Conifers Plants of the Taiga Conifer needles make the soil acidic when they are shed and many plants

cant grow in acidic soil which is one reason the forest floor of the taiga has few plants Soil forms slowly in the taiga because the climate and acidity slows decomposition Taiga Animals of the Taiga The taiga has many lakes and swamps that in the summer attract birds that

feed on insects. To avoid the harsh winters, birds migrate, while some year round residents, such as shrews, burrow underground for better insulation. Taiga Flycatcher Animals of the Taiga

Other animals, such as snowshoe hares, have adapted to avoid predation by shedding their brown summer fur and growing white fur that camouflages them in the winter snow. Bellringer List (1) on your card & Keep to yourself till I tell you!

Objectives Describe the difference between tropical and temperate grasslands. Describe the climate in a chaparral biome. Describe two desert animals and the adaptations that help them

survive. Describe one threat to the tundra biome. III. Grassland, Desert, and Tundra Biomes In climates that have less rainfall, forests biomes are replaced by savanna, grassland, and chapparal

biomes. As less rain falls, these biomes change to desert and tundra biomes. As precipitation decreases in an area, so does the diversity of the species that live there Grassland, Desert, and Tundra Biomes -while the number of species is often smaller, the number of individuals of each species present may be very large

A. Savannas Savannas located in tropical and subtropical areas near the equator and between tropical rain forest and desert biomes -parts of Africa, western India, northern Australia, and some parts of South America

-full of grasses, scattered trees, and shrubs Savannas -contain large varieties of grazing animals and the predators that hunt them -receive little precipitation throughout the

year with a wet season and a dry season -many animals are only active during the wet season -grass fires sweep across the savanna during the dry season and help restore nutrients to the soil Savannas Plants of the savanna

-plants must be able to survive long periods without water some trees and grasses have large horizontal root system by which they obtain water during the dry season -root systems enable plants to grow quickly after a fire Plants of the savanna

-grasses have vertical leaves that expose less of their surface area to the hot sun to further conserve water -some trees lose their leaves during the dry season to conserve water -trees and shrubs have thorns or sharp leaves that keep hungry herbivores away Animals of the savanna

-grazing herbivores adopt a migratory way of life they follow the rains to areas of newly sprouted grass and watering holes ex. Elephants Animals of the savanna

predators follow and stalk the migratory animals -savanna animals give birth only during the rainy season when food is most abundant so the young are more likely to survive -competition is reduced because herbivores graze plants at different heights -small gazelles graze on grasses, black rhinos on shrubs, and giraffes on tree leaves B. Temperate Grasslands

Temperate grasslands a biome dominated by grasses with very few trees -hot summers and cold winters -moderate amount of rain compared to forests 50-88cm (2ft) per year Temperate Grasslands

they have the most fertile soil of any biome so many of these biomes have been replaced with crops -few natural grasslands remain because they are replaced with farms and grazing areas -located on the interiors of continents where too little rain falls for trees to grow

Temperate Grasslands include the prairies of North America, steppes of Russia, and the pampas of South America -mountains play a crucial role in maintaining grasslands because they block rain clouds -the dry climate makes the grasslands susceptible to fires which

are common Plants in the temperate grasslands prairie grasses and wildflower are perennials that survive year to year -root systems of prairie grasses form dense layers that survive drought and fire as well as hold the soil in place Animals of the temperate

grasslands -grazing animals such as antelope and bison have large, flat back teeth for chewing the coarse prairie grass -other animals include badgers, prairie dogs, and owls -live in protected underground burrows which shield them from fire and weather and protect them from

predators Threats to temperate grasslands -farming and overgrazing have changed the grasslands -grain crops cannot hold the soil in place as well as native grasses and so soil erosion eventually occurs Threats to temperate grasslands

-erosion is also caused by overgrazing when grasses are constantly eaten an trampled the grasses cannot regenerate or hold the soil -this constant use can change fruitful grasslands into less productive desert-like biomes C. Chaparral

Chaparral a temperate woodland biome that is dominated by broadleafed evergreen shrubs -have fairly dry climates but receive enough rainfall to support more plants than a desert Chaparral

located in the middle latitudes about 30deg north and south of the equator -in primarily coastal areas that have Mediterranean climates warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters Plants of the Chaparral -most chapparal plants are low-lying, evergreen shrubs and small trees that grow in dense patches -chamise, Manzanita, scrub oak,

olive trees and herbs such as sage and bay Plants of the Chaparral -have small, leathery leaves that retain water -leaves contain oils that promote burning

which is an advantage because natural fires destroy trees that might compete with chapparal plants for light and space -so well-adapted to fire that they can resprout from small bits of surviving tissue Animals of the chapparal -a common adaptation is camouflage, shape or coloring that allows the animal to blend into its

environment -quail, lizards, chipmunks, and mule deer Threats to the chapparal -human development is greatest threat -because the get a lot of sun, are near oceans, and have a mild climate

year-round, humans tend to develop land for commercial and residential use D. Deserts Deserts areas that receive less than 25cm (less than 1ft) of precipitation a year and have little or no vegetation -have extreme temperatures

Deserts -hot deserts like Arizonas Sonoran Desert or Africas Sahara are closer to the equator than cold deserts like the Gobi Desert in China and Great Basin of the western US -deserts are often located in areas

near mountains because mountains can block the passage of moisture filled clouds Plants of the desert -all have adaptations for obtaining and conserving water Plants of the desert

-succulents such as cactuses have thick, fleshy stems and leaves that store water -leaves have waxy coating to prevent water loss -sharp spines to keep thirsty animals from devouring the plants juicy flesh -roots that spread out just under the surface of the soil to absorb as much rain as possible

Plants of the desert -some plants drop seeds that stay dormant in the soil until the next rainfall, the now plants quickly germinate, grow, and bloom before the soil becomes dry again Animals of the desert

-reptiles like Gila monsters and rattlesnakes have thick, scaly skin that prevents water loss -amphibians, like the spadefoot toad survive the summers by estivating burying themselves in the ground sleeping though the dry season Animals of the desert some animals like the elf owl nest in

cactuses to avoid predators -desert insects and spiders are covered with body armor that helps retain water -most desert animals are nocturnal E. Tundra

Tundra biome that is dominated by grasses, lichens, and herbs located primarily north of the Arctic Circle -summers are short so only the top few centimeters of soil thaw Tundra -underneath the topsoil is a layer of soil called permafrost

permanently frozen soil -the tundra becomes dotted with bogs and swamps when the top layer thaws -in the summer these areas are ideal breeding grounds for huge number of insects and birds Vegetation of the tundra

-mosses and lichens which can grow without soil can cover vast areas of rocks in the tundra -soil is thin so plants have wide shallow roots to help anchor them in the icy winds -flowering plants like campion and

gentian are short growing close to the ground keeps the plants out of Vegetation of the tundra the wind and absorb heat from the sunlit soil woody plants and perennials such as willow and juniper have evolved dwarf forms and grow flat or along the ground

Animals of the tundra -millions of migratory birds fly to the tundra to breed in the summer -food is abundant in the form of plants, mollusks, worms, and especially insects

-caribou migrate throughout the tundra in search of food and water Animals of the tundra -hunters like wolves roam the tundra and prey on caribou, deer, moose, and smaller animals like lemmings, mice and rabbits -rodents burrow underground during the winter, many lose their brown fur

for white, and are extremely well insulated Threats to the tundra -one of the most fragile biomes on the planet -food chains are simple and so they are easily disrupted

-because conditions are extreme, the land is easily damaged and slow to recover Threats to the tundra -until recently, these areas were undisturbed by humans, but oil has been located in some tundra regions -oil exploration, extraction, and

transport has disrupted the habitats of the plants and animals -pollution caused by spills or leaks and other toxic materials may also poison the food and water sources Graphic Organizer

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