CHAPTER 5: Listeners and Speakers

CHAPTER 5: Listeners and Speakers

A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking Sixth Edition CHAPTER 5: Listeners and Speakers Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Listening Listening is the conscious act of

Receiving messages; Comprehending messages; Interpreting messages; Evaluating messages; Responding to messages. Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Recognize That We Listen Selectively (1 of 4) Audience members process information differently.

Selective perception People pay attention to certain messages Ignore others Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Recognize That We Listen Selectively (2 of 4) Factors influencing what we listen to We pay attention to What we hold to be important;

Information touching our experiences/backgrounds. We sort/filter information based on what we know. Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Recognize That We Listen Selectively (3 of 4) Identify what is important to listeners. Show listeners what they can gain. Touch upon listeners experiences and backgrounds.

Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Recognize That We Listen Selectively (4 of 4) Build repetition of key ideas. Use analogies to help listeners learn. Use presentation aids when appropriate. Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved.

Anticipate Obstacles to Listening (1 of 6) Active listening is focused and purposeful. Obstacles to listening External and internal distractions Scriptwriting and defensive listening Laziness and overconfidence Cultural barriers

Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Anticipate Obstacles to Listening (2 of 6) Minimize external and internal distractions. Environmental distractions (e.g., a siren) Try to anticipate and plan for them. Internal distractions Be well rested and avoid daydreaming. Monitor yourself and consciously focus.

Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Anticipate Obstacles to Listening (3 of 6) Guard against Scriptwriting Focusing on what youll say next Defensive listening Disliking the speakers words beforehand

Deciding you know better Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Anticipate Obstacles to Listening (4 of 6) Beware of laziness and overconfidence. Can manifest in several ways Expecting too little from the speaker Ignoring important information Displaying an arrogant attitude

Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Anticipate Obstacles to Listening (5 of 6) Work to overcome cultural barriers. As a listener Consciously refrain from prejudging the speaker; Focus on what is being said; Ask questions to reveal your needs.

Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Anticipate Obstacles to Listening (6 of 6) Work to overcome cultural barriers. As a speaker Eliminate or define idioms; Speak at an appropriate rate; Pay attention to pronunciation and articulation;

Be alert to nonverbal cues; Clarify points when indicated. Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Practice Active Listening Steps to active listening Set listening goals. Listen for main ideas.

Watch for speakers nonverbal cues. Try to detect speakers organizational pattern. Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Evaluate Evidence and Reasoning Use your critical faculties to Evaluate the speakers evidence;

Analyze the speakers assumptions and biases; Assess the speakers reasoning; Consider multiple perspectives; Summarize and assess facts and evidence. Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Strive for the Open and Respectful Exchange of Ideas Dialogic communication Sharing of ideas in respectful atmosphere Speaker

Opportunity to achieve understanding with audience Listeners Being open-minded and empathetic Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved. Offer Constructive and Compassionate Feedback

Be honest and fair when evaluating. Adjust to the speakers style. Be compassionate in your criticism. Be selective in your criticism. Copyright 2019 Bedford/St. Martin's. All rights reserved.

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