Chapter 42 Ecosystems

Chapter 42 Ecosystems

Biology Concepts & Applications 10 Edition Chapter 42 Ecosystems Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 42.1 The Nature of Ecosystems Ecosystems

A community of organisms together with the nonliving components of their environment Organisms and their environment interact through a oneway flow of energy and a cycling of nutrients Nutrients taken up by producers are returned to the environment by decomposers, then taken up again Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Producers and Consumers An ecosystem runs on energy captured by primary

producers Primary producer (autotroph) An organism that obtains energy and nutrients from inorganic sources to build organic compounds Primary production Rate at which producers capture and store energy Varies by ecosystem, season, and nutrient availability Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

One-Way Flow of Energy Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Producers and Consumers Consumers are described by their diets

Herbivores: plants Carnivores: animal flesh Parasites: tissues of a living host Omnivores: plants and animals Detritivores: detritus, small bits of decaying organic matter Decomposers: waste and remains Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or

in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Energy Flows, Nutrients Cycle (1 of 2) Energy captured by producers is converted to bond energy in organic molecules This energy is released by metabolic reactions that give off heat Energy flow through living organisms is a one-way process Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or

in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Energy Flows, Nutrients Cycle (2 of 2) Nutrients cycle within an ecosystem Producers take up hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon from inorganic sources present in air and water They also take up dissolved nitrogen, phosphorus, and other necessary minerals Nutrients that producers use to build their bodies are used in turn to build the bodies of the consumers who eat them

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Trophic Structure (1 of 2) Trophic level: position of an organism in a food chain Food chains Transfer of energy to higher trophic levels Describe how energy and materials are transferred from one organism to another Description of who eats whom in one path of energy in an

ecosystem Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Trophic Structure (2 of 2) Limits of food chains Energy captured by producers usually passes through no more than four or five trophic levels The length of food chains is restricted by the inefficiency of energy transfers

Only 530% of energy in an organism at one trophic level ends up in tissues of an organism at the next trophic level Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Food Chain Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

42.2 Depicting Trophic Structure Food chains of an ecosystem cross-connect as a food web The food web diagram reflects environmental constraints and the inefficiency of energy transfers among trophic levels Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

An Arctic Food Web Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Food Webs Food webs include two types of interconnecting food chains Grazing food chain Energy transferred from producers to herbivores (grazers)

Detrital food chain Energy transferred directly from producers to detritivores (worms or insects) Major food chain in land ecosystems Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Land Food Web in Colorado Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in

whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Ecological Pyramids Ecological pyramids illustrate the inefficiency of transfers between trophic levels A biomass pyramid shows the amounts of organic material in bodies of organisms at each trophic level at a specific time An energy pyramid shows energy flow through each trophic level in a given interval

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Ecological Pyramids for Silver Springs Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 42.3 Biogeochemical Cycles (1 of 2) Elements essential to life move between a

community and its environment in a biogeochemical cycle A nutrient moves between environmental reservoirs and in and out of food webs Chemical and geologic processes move elements to, from, and among environmental reservoirs (rocks, sediments, water, atmosphere) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Biogeochemical Cycles (2 of 2) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 42.4 The Water Cycle (1 of 3) Ninety-seven percent of Earths water is in its oceans Sunlight energy drives the water cycle by causing evaporation Water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into clouds

and returns to Earths surface as precipitation Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Water Cycle (2 of 3) How water moves Precipitation that falls on any specific area of land drains into its particular watershed Most precipitation seeps into the ground (groundwater) Water that drains through soil layers often collects in

natural underground reservoirs (aquifers) The flow of groundwater and surface water (runoff) slowly returns water to oceans Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Water Cycle (3 of 3) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or

otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Water Reservoirs TABLE 42.1 Environmental Water Reservoirs Reservoir Ocean Volume (103 cubic kilometers) 1,370,000 Polar ice, glaciers

29,000 Groundwater 4,000 Surface water (lakes, rivers) 230 Atmosphere (water vapor)

14 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 42.5 The Carbon Cycle Movement flows between the oceans, the atmosphere, and living organisms An atmospheric cycle Most carbon is stored in rocks

Enters food webs as gaseous carbon dioxide or bicarbonate dissolved in water Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Carbon Reservoirs and Flow (1 of 2) 1. Carbon enters land food webs when plants use CO2 from the air in photosynthesis 2. CO2 released by aerobic respiration returns to the atmosphere

3. Carbon diffuses between atmosphere and ocean HCO3 forms when CO2 dissolves in seawater Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Carbon Reservoirs and Flow (2 of 2) 4. Marine producers take up HCO3 for photosynthesis; marine organisms release CO2 from aerobic respiration 5. Many marine organisms incorporate carbon into

shells, which become part of sediments 6. Burning fossil fuels derived from ancient remains of plants puts additional CO2 into the atmosphere Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Carbon Cycle Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or

otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Greenhouse Effect (1 of 4) Warming of Earths lower atmosphere and surface as a result of heat trapped by greenhouse gases Earths atmosphere reflects some sunlight energy back into space Some light energy reaches and warms Earths surface Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a

password-protected website for classroom use. The Greenhouse Effect (2 of 4) Earths warmed surface emits heat energy Some escapes into space Some is absorbed and emitted in all directions by greenhouse gases Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Greenhouse Effect (3 of 4) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Greenhouse Effect (4 of 4) Human-induced increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases correlates with global climate change Current atmospheric CO2 is the highest in 420,000 years and is still climbing

Global climate change A rise in temperature and shifts in other climate patterns Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 42.6 The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen moves among the atmosphere, soil, and water, and into and out of food webs An atmospheric cycle Atmospheric nitrogen (N2 or gaseous nitrogen) is Earths

main nitrogen reservoir, but most organisms cannot use nitrogen in this form Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Nitrogen Reservoirs and Flow (1 of 4) Certain bacteria can make nitrogen available to other organisms/atmosphere Nitrogen fixation Use nitrogen gas (N2) to form ammonia (NH3)

Nitrification Convert ammonium (NH4+) to nitrates (NO3) Denitrification Convert nitrates or nitrites (NO2) to nitrogen gas Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Nitrogen Reservoirs and Flow (2 of 4)

1. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in soil and water or lichens break bonds in N2 and form ammonia, which is ionized in water as ammonium (NH4+) and taken up by plants 2. Another group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria forms nodules on roots of peas and other legumes Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Nitrogen Reservoirs and Flow (3 of 4)

3. Consumers get nitrogen by eating plants or one another; bacterial and fungal decomposers break down wastes and remains and return ammonium to the soil 4. Nitrification converts ammonium to nitrates Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaeans convert ammonium to nitrites (NO2) Bacteria convert nitrites to nitrates (NO3) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Nitrogen Reservoirs and Flow (4 of 4) 5. Nitrates are taken up and used by producers 6. Denitrifying bacteria use nitrate for energy and release nitrogen gas into the atmosphere Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Nitrogen Cycle on Land

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Alterations to the Cycle Manufactured ammonia fertilizers increase the concentration of H+ and N Essential nutrients leach away in soil water Nitrogen runoff pollutes aquatic habitats Burning fossil fuels releases nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas contributing to acid rain

Nitrogen in acid rain has the same effects as fertilizers Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Nitrogen-Rich Fertilizer Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

42.7 The Phosphorus Cycle (1 of 6) Atoms of phosphorus are highly reactive, so phosphorus does not occur naturally in its elemental form Phosphorus passes quickly through food webs as it moves from land to ocean sediments, then slowly back to land A sedimentary cycle Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

The Phosphorus Cycle (2 of 6) 1. Weathering and erosion move phosphates from rocks into soil, lakes, and rivers 2. Leaching and runoff carry dissolved phosphates to the ocean 3. Phosphorus settles as deposits along continental margins Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

The Phosphorus Cycle (3 of 6) 4. Slow movements of Earths crust uplift deposits onto land, where weathering releases phosphates from rocks 5. Land plants take up dissolved phosphate from soil water Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

The Phosphorus Cycle (4 of 6) 6. Land animals get phosphates by eating plants or one another; phosphorus returns to soil in wastes and remains 7. In seas, producers take up phosphate dissolved in seawater 8. Wastes and remains replenish phosphates in seawater Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Phosphorus Cycle (5 of 6) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Phosphorus Cycle (6 of 6) Phosphorus is often a limiting factor for plant growth Phosphate-rich droppings from seabird or bat colonies are used as fertilizer Phosphate-rich rock is also mined for this purpose

Water pollution from high-phosphate fertilizers, detergents, or sewage can cause eutrophication Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Application: Toxic Transfer (1 of 2) Bioaccumulation: an organisms tissues store a pollutant taken up from the environment, so that the concentration of pollutant in the body increases

over time Nutrients are not the only things that move up food chains Pollutants enter food chains and pass from one trophic level to the next By the process of biological magnification Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Toxic Transfers (2 of 2)

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Discuss What is the one ingredient required by all ecosystems that cannot be recycled? Why is the term food chain rarely used when describing actual ecosystems? Is it environmentally wise to rely on large quantities of nitrogen-rich fertilizers for crop production? What are some alternatives?

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

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