Chapter - 4 Structure of Atom

Chapter - 4 Structure of Atom

Tutorial 1) Using Slaters rule conrm that the experimentally observed electronic conguration of K (Z = 19), 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1, is energetically more stable than the conguration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1. 2) Use Slaters rules to estimate values of Z eff for (a) a 4s and (b) a 3d electron in a V atom. Using your answer, explain why the valence conguration of the ground state of a V+ ion is likely to be 3d34s1 rather than 3d24s2. 3) Assume three p-block elements A (Z = 6), B (Z = 7) and C (Z = 8) having ground state electronic configuration 1s22s22p2 , 1s22s22p3 and 1s22s22p4 respectively. The increase in Zeff between A and B is 0.69 whereas the increase between B and C is only 0.62. Suggest a reason

why the increase in Zeff for a 2p electron is smaller between B and C than between A and B given the configurations of the atoms listed above. Period f block elements Noble Gas Inner transition elements

Halogen Group Alkali Earth Metal Alkali Metal Transition elements np6

ns1 d7 d8 d10 f block elements np5 d6

np4 d5 np3 d2 d3 s1 d10

np2 np1 ns2 d1 s1 d5 Noble Gases 1s

2 2 6 2 1s22s22p6 Ne

10 1s22s22p63s23p6 Ar 18 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6 Kr 36

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 2 He 2 6 2 10

6 2 10 6 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d10 5p66s24f14 5d10 6p6 Xe

54 Rn 86 Noble Gases np6 Noble Gas Noble Gases

Neon (Ne) and the elements below it in Group 18 have eight electrons in their outer energy levels. Their energy levels are stable, so they do not combine easily with other elements. Alkali Metals H 1 Li 3

1s1 1s22s1 Na 11 1s22s22p63s1 K 19 1s22s22p63s23p64s1

Rb 37 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s1 Cs 55 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d10 5p66s1 Fr

87 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f14 5d106p67s1 Alkali Metals ns1 Alkali Metal Alkali Metals

The alkali metals form compounds that are similar to each other. Alkali metals each have one outer energy level electron. It is this electron that is removed when alkali metals react. The easier it is to remove an electron, the more reactive the atom is. Unlike halogens, the reactivities of alkali metals increase down the group. Ionization Energies of Elements np6

ns2 ns1 np5 np4 Ionization Energies of Elements Ionization energy increases across a period and decreases down a group.

The variation of first ionization energy (in kilojoules per mole) through the main groups of the periodic table. Why ionization energy of N/P is higher than O/S? Ionization Energies of Elements The values of the rst ionization energies of the elements up to Rn. Ionization energy increases across a period and decreases down a group.

Halogens np6 np5 Noble Gas Halogen Halogens Fluorine is the most reactive of the halogens because its outer energy level is closest to the nucleus.

ELECTRON AFFINITY Electron affinities are highest for elements near fluorine, particularly the halogens. Electronegativity increases across a period and decreases down a group. ELECTRON AFFINITY Electron affinities are highest for elements near fluorine, particularly the halogens. Electronegativity increases across a period and decreases down a group.

Periodic Properties Books: Books: 1) INORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Duward Shriver and Peter Atkins. 2) Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity by James E. Huheey, Ellen A. Keiter and Richard L. Keiter. 3) Inorganic Chemistry: Catherine Housecroft, Alan G. Sharpe.

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