Chapter 21 Protists What are protists? Eukaryotes that are not members of the plant, animal or fungi kingdoms They were the first eukaryotes (nucleus). Characteristics of protists Most are unicellular Can be heterotrophic or autotrophic Most live in water (some live in soil, animals, )
ALL are eukaryotic (have a nucleus) Some can move cilia, flagella, passive (float) Characteristics of protists (cont.) Many reproduce by binary fission (asexual) Some can reproduce sexually and asexually Some exchange genetic information by conjugation (paramecium)
Type of protists Heterotrophic protists (amebas and paramecium) Engulf and digest their food or absorb it from their environment Ameba Lives in water Appear like blobs Moves using pseudopodia false feet Reproduce by binary fission Ingests food by surrounding and engulfing
it (endocytosis) Contractile vacuole removes excess water Can cause amebic dysentery diarrhea and stomach upset from drinking contaminated water Ameba Paramecium Live in water Move using cilia
Exhibits avoidance behavior Reproduces asexually (binary fission) Reproduces sexually (conjugation) Ingests food through a mouth pore, gullet, then forms a food vacuole which fuse with lysosomes for digestion The outer membrane (pellicle) is rigid the paramecium stays the same shape (like a shoe) Paramecium
Types of protists Autotrophic (phytoplankton, kelp and euglena) of the photosynthesis on earth is done by protists (producers) Provide energy through photosynthesis to corals Provides shelter to other organisms (kelp 60m) Recycling waste Euglena
Live in water Have flagella for movement Use chloroplast for photosynthesis Can turn into heterotrophs if they are kept in the dark Has an eyespot used for sensing light and dark Euglena Protist diseases Parasite - an organism that lives on or in a
host organism and causes harm to that organism Vector - an organism that can carry a parasite, and infect other organisms Disease Amebic Dysentery Giardiasis ("beaver fever") African
Entamoeba water diarrhea can get from tap water in some places Giardia
water diarrhea, vomiting don't drink water from streams Trypanosom tse tse fly a
uncontrolled sleepiness, confusion anopholes mosquito fever, chills, death cats
fetal death or brain damage Only found in isolated areas lives in blood can be treated with quinine lives in blood results in millions deaths per year pregnant women
should avoid cat litter Plasmodium Toxoplasmosi Toxoplasma s Malaria Caused by the protist Plasmodium Carried by the Anopheles mosquito
Found in hot, wet, tropical places Anopheles mosquito taking a blood The arrow points to the purplish colored meal, this is how a human becomes protist (Plasmodium), the pinkish infected with plasmodium and spheres are blood cells contracts Malaria Malaria life cycle
Other protist disease pictures This slide shows a blood smear of a person infected with trypanosoma. The protist is the purplish colored string-like things. They appear string-like due to a flagella. The reddish circles are blood cells. B = Protist, Giardia A = flagella
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