Chapter 2: Population

Chapter 2: Population

Chapter 9: Urban Geography Theories and Models Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Site and Situation The site of a city is its absolute location, often chosen for its advantages in trade or defense, or as a center for religious practice. The situation of a city is based on its role in the

larger, surrounding context: A citys situation changes with times. Ex.: Rome becoming the center of the Roman Catholic Church. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Site and Situation during European Exploration

The relative importance of the interior trade routes changed when European maritime exploration and overseas colonization ushered in an era of oceanic, worldwide trade. The situation of cities like Paris and Xian (ancient capital of China) changed from being crucial in an interior trading route to being left out of an

oceanic trade. After European exploration took off during the 1400s, the dominance of interior cities declined. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Site and Situation during European Exploration Coastal cities remained crucial after exploration

led to colonialism. The trade networks European powers commanded (including the slave trade) brought unprecedented riches to Europes flourishing medieval cities, such as Amsterdam (the Netherlands), London (England), Lisbon (Portugal), Liverpool (England), and Seville (Spain) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rank and Size in the Urban Matrix The rank-size rule holds that in a model urban hierarchy. The rank-size rule does not apply in all countries, especially countries with one dominant city. According to the rank-size rule, a rank 2 city would have the population of a countrys largest city and a rank 3 city would have the population of a country's largest city, a rank four city would have the population of the largest city, and so on.

2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Example: Let's say that the largest city in Texas is Houston, and the second biggest is Dallas Houston = 2.2 million people then.... Dallas = 1/2 of 2.2 million people (because they are the 2nd) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Primary City Mark Jefferson: A primate city is a countrys leading city, always disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling. Primate cities exist in areas where the rank-size rule does not apply. Primate cities are cities that are disproportionately larger than all other cities in that region; these cities are normally the biggest

contributor to the overall economy in that area or could possibly be one of few cities stimulating the economy. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Example: As an "alpha" global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in North America. We can see from the chart that Mexico City has a much greater number of people than

the surrounding cities, making it a primate city; Mexico City is also Mexico's center of trade, economics, commerce, politics, culture and social areas. This makes sense because it houses the most people out of Mexico. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Central Place Theory Central place theory: Walter Christaller, The

Central Places in Southern Germany (1933), had five assumptions: 1. The surface of the ideal region would be flat and have no physical barriers. 2. Soil fertility would be the same everywhere 3. Population and purchasing power would be evenly distributed. 4. The region would have a uniform transportation network to permit direct travel from each settlement to the other. 5. From any given place, a good or service could be

sold in all directions out to a certain distance. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Central Place Theory Each central place has a surrounding complementary region, an exclusive trade area within which the town

has a monopoly on the sale of certain goods. Hexagonal Hinterlands: Christaller (Model designer)chose perfectly fitted hexagonal regions as the shape of each trade area. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Where Are Cities Located, and Why?

Central Places Today New factors, forces, and conditions not anticipated by Christallers models and theories make them less relevant today. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The Sun Belt phenomenon: the movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern states to the South and Southwest.

Sun Belt 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Are Cities Organized, and How Do They Function? Models of the City Functional zonation: the division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions).

Globalization has created common cultural landscapes in the financial districts of many world cities. Regional models of cities help us understand the processes that forged cities in the first place and understand the impact of modern linkages and influences now changing cities. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Functional Zones

Zone is typically preceded by a descriptor that conveys the purpose of that area of the city. Most models define the key economic zone of the city as the central business district (CBD). Central city describes the urban area that is not suburban. In effect, central city refers to the older city as opposed to the newer suburbs. A suburb is an outlying, functionally uniform part of an urban area, and is often (but not always) adjacent to the central city. Suburbanization is the process by which lands

that were previously outside of the urban environment become urbanized, as people and businesses from the city move to these spaces. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Functional Zones P.O. Muller: Contemporary Suburban America (1981): Found suburban cities ready to compete

with the central city for leading urban economic activities. In addition to expanding residential zones, the process of suburbanization rapidly creates distinct urban regions complete with industrial, commercial, and educational components. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Modeling the North American City Concentric zone model: resulted from

sociologist Ernest Burgesss study of Chicago in the 1920s. Burgesss model divides the city into five concentric zones, defined by their function: 1. CBD is itself subdivided into several subdistricts. 2. Zone of transition is characterized by residential deterioration and encroachment by business and light manufacturing. 3. Zone 3 is a ring of closely spaced but adequate homes occupied by the blue-collar labor force. 4. Zone 4 consists of middle-class residences.

5. Zone 5 is the suburban ring. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Modeling the North American City Homer Hoyt: Sector model The city grows outward from the center, so a low-rent area could extend all the way from the CBD to the citys outer edge, creating zones that are shaped like a piece

of pie. The pie-shaped pieces describe the highrent residential, intermediate rent residential, low-rent residential, education and recreation, transportation, and industrial sectors. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Multi-Nuclear Model Suggested by Chauncey Harris and Edward

Ullman in 1945 Maintained a city developed with equal intensity around various points The CBD was not the sole generator of change 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Multi-Nuclear Model Equal weight must be given to: An old community on city outskirts around which new suburbs clustered

An industrial district that grew from an original waterfront location Low-income area that began because of some social stigma attached to site 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Modeling the North American City Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman:

multiple nuclei model This model recognizes that the CBD was losing its dominant position as the single nucleus of the urban area. Edge cities: Suburban downtowns developed mainly around big regional shopping centers; they attracted industrial parks, office complexes, hotels, restaurants, enter-tainment facilities, and sports stadiums. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 9.23 Tysons Corner, Virginia. In the suburbs of Washington, D.C., on Interstate 495 (the Beltway), Tysons Corner has developed as a major edge city, with offices, retail, and commercial services. Rob Crandall/The Image Works. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Modeling the Cities of the Global

Periphery and Semiperiphery Primate cities in developing countries are called megacities when the city has a large population, a vast territorial extent, rapid in-migration, and a strained, inadequate infrastructure.

Concept Caching: Mumbai, India Harm de Blij 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The South American City Griffin-Ford model South American cities blend traditional elements of South American culture with globalization forces that are reshaping

the urban scene, combining radial sectors and concentric zones. The thriving CBD anchors the model. Shantytowns are unplanned groups of crude dwellings and shelters made of scrap wood, iron, and pieces of cardboard that develop around cities. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

The African City The imprint of European colonialism can still be seen in many African cities. During colonialism, Europeans laid out prominent urban centers. The centers of South Africas major cities (Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Durban) remain essentially Western. Studies of African cities indicate that the central city often consists of not one but three CBDs: a remnant of the colonial CBD, an informal and

sometimes periodic market zone, and a transitional business center where commerce is conducted. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The Southeast Asian City Figure 9.27 Model of the Large Southeast Asian City. A model of land use in the medium-sized Southeast

Asian city includes sectors and zones within each sector. Adapted with permission from: T. G. McGee, The Southeast Asian City, London: Bell, 1967, p. 128. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

Shaping Cities in the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery Particularly in the economic periphery, new arrivals (and long-term residents) crowd together in overpopulated apartments, dismal tenements, and teeming slums. Cities in poorer parts of the world generally lack enforceable zoning laws. Across the global periphery, the one trait all major cities display is the stark contrast between the wealthy and poor.

2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities? Shaping Cities in the Global Core During the segregation era in the United States, Realtors, financial lenders, and city governments defined and segregated spaces in urban environments. Ex.: redlining, blockbusting White flightmovement of whites from the

city and adjacent neighborhoods to the outlying suburbs. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities? In order to counter the suburbanization trend, city governments are encouraging commercialization of the central business district and gentrification of neighborhoods in and around the central business district. Commercialization entails transforming the

central business district into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike. Gentrification is the rehabilitation of houses in older neighborhoods. Teardowns: suburban homes meant for demolition; the intention is to replace them with McMansions. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

Urban Sprawl and New Urbanism Urban sprawl: unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Urban Sprawl and New Urbanism

To counter urban sprawl, a group of architects, urban planners, and developer outlined an urban design vision they call new urbanism: development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs Geographer David Harvey argues the new urbanism movement is a kind of spatial determinism that does not recognize that the fundamental difficulty with modernism was its persistent habit of privileging spatial forms over

social processes. Other critics say communities that new John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. urbanists form 2012 through their projects are Galactic City https://prezi.com/rsf9yximdpdv/galactic-citymodel /

2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Urban Decay Detroits Decline https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDoUpX NmcZA 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Past 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Present 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The Geography of Detroits Decline During the mid-20th century, Detroit was the fourth largest city in the United States with a

population of over 1.85 million people. It was a thriving metropolis that embodied the American Dream - a land of opportunity and growth. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Today, Detroit has become a symbol of urban decay. Detroit's infrastructure is crumbling and the city is operating at $300 million dollars short of municipal sustainability. It is now the

crime capital of America, with 7 out of 10 crimes unsolved. More than a million people have left the city since its prominent fifties. There are a multitude of reasons as to why Detroit's fell apart, but all the fundamental causes are rooted in geography 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. "keno capitalism" (Dear and Flusty 1998). In this model, based on Los Angeles, different districts are

laid out in an essentially random grid, similar to a the board used in the gambling game keno. The premise of this model is that the internet and modern transportation systems have made location and distance largely irrelevant (not important) to the location of different sorts of activities within a city. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The Gravity Model is a model used to estimate the amount of interaction between two cities.

It is based on Newton's universal law of gravitation, which measured the attraction of two objects based off their mass and distance. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. This model study the relative strength of A bond between 2 places. The model was created to predict movement of people, information, and commodities between cities and even continents. This model takes into account the:

Population 2 Places Distance To determinate the gravity multiply the population of a city A By the population of city B and then divide the product by the distance between the 2 cities squared. Population 1 x Population 2 _______________________ = gravity or attraction Distance between the 2 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Gravity Model Exercise: Which two cities have bigger gravity or attraction? Population: New York City- 8,406,000 Austin- 885,400 Albuquerque- 556,495 Distance: NY to Aus- 1,742.2 mi Albu to Aus-694.6 mi 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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