CHAPTER 12 - THE AGE OF JACKSON Section 1 - Politics of the ...

CHAPTER 12 - THE AGE OF JACKSON Section 1 - Politics of the ...

Copy the following on the first 8-10 lines of NB p. 39. 42. What is Jacksonian democracy? 43. How did Jackson use the spoils system to change the government? Copy the following on NB p. 39. (Allow three lines for each item.) 1. Who were the candidates in the 1824 presidential election and their supporters? 2. What was the outcome of the 1824 election? 3. What happened as a result of the 1824 election?

4. What was the outcome of the 1828 election? 5. How did expanding democracy bring Andrew Jackson to power? 6. What personal qualities made Andrew Jackson a popular candidate and leader? 7. What were the characteristics of Jacksonian democracy? Lesson 12.1 Jacksonian Democracy Today we will analyze Jacksonian democracy and the expansion of voting rights.

Vocabulary spoils loot taken in war by the winning side corrupt dishonest, crooked political party organization committed to helping the candidates it supports to win elections Check for Understanding What are we going to do today? What does this mean: To the victor belong the spoils? What kind of things might cause people to describe a politician as corrupt?

What We Already Know Disagreements Disagreements between between Alexander Alexander Hamilton Hamilton and and Thomas Thomas Jefferson Jefferson led led to to the

the formation formation of of political political parties, parties, despite despite Washingtons Washingtons warning warning against against them. them.

What We Already Know After the War of 1812, the country settled into a period of political unity known as the Era of Good Feelings. What We Already Know One of Americas heroes from the War of 1812 was Andrew Jackson, who scored a dramatic victory over the British at New Orleans.

The Election of 1824 By 1824, there was only one political party, but the country had developed into three distinct regions. These regional differences played a major role in the 1824 election. Four candidates from New England, the South and the West split the DemocraticRepublican party. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams was New Englands choice.

The South backed Secretary of the Treasury William Crawford of Georgia. Westerners supported Speaker of the House Henry Clay, . . . and Andrew Jackson, the hero of New Orleans. The election of 1824 had an unusual outcome. Jackson won the most

popular votes, but no one received a majority of electoral votes. As in 1800, the House of Representatives would have to choose the president from the top three vote getters. Henry Henry Clay Clay affected affected the the outcome

outcome of of the the vote vote in in the the House House of of Representatives. Representatives. As Speaker of the House, he threw his support to Adams, who went on to be chosen by the House

of Representatives. As president, Adams later named Clay to become his secretary of state. Adams appointment of Clay was very significant. Washingtons Secretary of State was Thomas Jefferson, who later became president. Jeffersons Secretary of State was James Madison, who became the next president. Madisons Secretary of State

was James Monroe, who became the next president. Monroes Secretary of State was John Quincy Adams, who became the next president. It appeared to many that Clay had supported Adams during the House vote in exchange for his appointment as Secretary of State. According to the historical trend, Clays appointment would set him up to become

president after Adams left office. Jacksons supporters reacted angrily to Clays appointment. They claimed that Adams and Clay made a corrupt bargain to make Adams president. In fact, such a bargain was unlikely because Adams was a very honest man. Jackson believed that he represented

the common people, while Adams represented only the wealthy elite. He felt the election had been stolen from him, and that the will of the people had been ignored. The election of 1824 changed the Democratic-Republican Party. The accusations of a corrupt bargain caused the party to split between the supporters of Jackson and of Adams.

Check for Understanding A ask B: What happened as a result of the 1824 election? The Democratic-Republican party was split into two parties by the supporters of Jackson and of Adams. Be Be sure sure to to re-state re-state the the question question in in your your response!

response! During During the the 1828 1828 election, election, two two political political parties parties emerged. emerged. Supporters of Adams formed the National

Republican party and Jacksons supporters created the Democratic party. The election of 1828 was a bitter campaign filled with vicious personal attacks. Newspapers published articles that accused both sides of immoral activities.

Jacksons supporters made several accusations against President Adams. They claimed he had delivered an American girl to the Czar while serving as Minister to Russia. Adams was also accused of using public funds to buy gambling devices for the White House; it turned out that these were a chess set and a pool table. The

The Adams Adams campaign campaign accused accused Rachel Rachel Jackson Jackson of of bigamy. bigamy. Rachel Jackson had an unhappy first marriage and the state legislature gave her husband permission to sue for divorce. Believing she was divorced,

Rachel married Andrew Jackson in 1791. When the mistake became known to them, the Jacksons remarried in 1794, but the embarrassing and hurtful gossip persisted. Many voters saw Jackson as the candidate of the common man. Jackson crusaded against control of the government by the wealthy. He promised to look out for the interests of common people. He also promoted the concept of

majority rule. These ideas became known as Jacksonian democracy. The goal of Jacksonian democracy is to spread political power to all the people, to guarantee majority rule. Get your whiteboards and markers ready! 1. What is Jacksonian democracy? A. A. Government

Government by by the the people people B. B. Limited Limited government government with with aa strong strong president president C. C. Democracy Democracy in

in social, social, economic, economic, and and political political life life D. D. Support Support for for the the farmer farmer and and the

the worker worker E. E. More More political political power power for for the the wealthy wealthy and and well-educated well-educated Choose the description

that is NOT true! By 1828, political power had begun to shift. States began to allow men who were not property owners or taxpayers to vote. This easing of voting restrictions increased the number of voters. Voting was still limited to adult white males. In 1828, the expansion of voting rights led to a

stunning victory for Jackson, who won the presidency in a landslide election. Jacksons Jacksons election election was was hailed hailed as as aa victory

victory for for common common people. people. Large numbers of Western farmers and Eastern city workers had supported Jackson. Their votes put an end to the idea that the government should be controlled by an educated, elite upper class.

Jackson won the presidency for several reasons. Jackson won partly because of his reputation as the hero of the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812. Also, he was very popular among common people, who were gaining the right to vote in more and more states. Check for Understanding B ask A: How did expanding

democracy bring Andrew Jackson to power? Expanding Expanding democracy democracy brought brought Andrew Andrew Jackson Jackson to to power power because because he he was was very

very popular popular among among common common people, people, who who were were gaining gaining the the right right to to vote vote in in more

more and and more more states. states. Be Be sure sure to to re-state re-state the the question question in in your your response!

response! Andrew Jacksons background was different from previous presidents. Jackson wasnt from a rich family from Massachusetts or Virginia. He was from a poor family and was orphaned early in life. He had earned great wealth as a successful lawyer and land speculator. He was the first president who was a true war hero and he was the first president from the West.

Check for Understanding A ask B: What personal qualities made Andrew Jackson a popular candidate and leader? Jackson was a popular candidate and leader because he was . . . not from a wealthy family, but was born poor. a self-made man. a Westerner, not a Virginian. a military hero. Be Be sure sure to

to re-state re-state the the question question in in your your response! response! Jackson suffered deep personal loss as a result of the election. Shortly after he won, Rachel died of a heart attack and was buried on Christmas Eve.

Jackson believed that the campaign attacks on her reputation had killed her. Jacksons election brought reforms in the government. Jackson introduced a practice that came to be known as the spoils system. He replaced many former government

officials with his supporters, to reward them for helping him get elected. Jacksons opponents called the practice corrupt, but he defended his use of this spoils system. Jackson defended his use of this

spoils system. He believed that doing this broke up one partys hold on government. He also felt that common, ordinary Americans were quite capable of performing most government jobs. Although Jackson believed in Thomas Jeffersons ideas about democracy, his election brought about several changes. Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

2. How did Jackson use the spoils system to change the government? A. A. He He gave gave government government jobs jobs to to factory factory workers workers in in the the cities. cities.

B. B. He He forced forced the the National National Banks Banks managers managers to to resign. resign. C. C. He He gave gave government

government jobs jobs to to his his political political supporters. supporters. D. D. He He made made sure sure government government jobs jobs went went

to to the the people people best best suited suited for for them. them. E. E. He He filled filled his his cabinet cabinet with with former

former political political enemies. enemies.

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