Chapter 12

Chapter 12

The Renaissance & Reformation Section 1 The Origins of the Renaissance The Making of Renaissance Society The Making of Renaissance Society o "rebirth" o Age of Recovery

Economic Recovery o expansion of trade o Industries Old & New o Banking & the Medici Social Changes in the Renaissance The Nobility

o Baldassare Castiglione o The Book of the Courtier The Family in the Renaissance o Family Bond o Marriage o Children The Italian States in the Renaissance Milan

Venice Republic of Florence Medici Family Papal States Great Schism Kingdom of Naples Poverty Stricken peasants & Unruly Nobles Missed out

Machiavelli & the New Statecraft Political Animal The Prince o "they are ungrateful, fickle, decepting, avoiders of danger and eager to gain" o "he should do what is right if he can; but he must be prepared to do what is wrong if necessary" Section 2

The Artistic & The Intellectual Renaissance The Intellectual Renaissance Individualism & Secularism Italian Renaissance Humanism Humanist Studies

Who? Emergence of Humanism o Petrarch o Father of Italian Renaissance Humanism o Classical Latin Cicero Prose & Virgil Poetry o Life of Solitude Reject family and 15th Century Humanism

Civic Spirit and pride Civic Humanism o Cicero o Active Civic life o Greeks Renaissance Innovations Education o "Liberal Studies"

o Included: History, ethics, eloquence, letters, poetry, math, astronomy and Music o Goal: Path of virtue and wisdom o "not everyone is obliged to excel in philosophy, law, or medicine, but all are destined to live in society and practice virtue" Printing Press o Johannes Gutenberg "The Bible"

The Artistic Renaissance Art in the Early Renaissance o imitation of nature o Persuade onlookers of the reality of the object or event o shift focus to human beings as the center of attention

Masaccio Frescoes Brancacci Chapel first masterpiece New realistic style Onlookers become aware of a world of reality that appears to be a continuation of their own world Tribute Money o Story of Jesuss confrontation by a tax

collector at the entrance of the town of Capernaum o Peter coin Lake of Galilee Masaccio Tribute Money Donatello

David Time spent in Rome First known life-size, free standing Bronze nude Severed Head of Goliath Celebrates the Triumph of a Florentine battle vs. Milan Filippo Brunelleschi

the Duomo Ancient Rome Complete an unfinished Dome - Florence Filippo Brunelleschi

Church of San Lorenzo Cosimo De Medici The High Renaissance Between 1480-1520 Importance of Rome new cultural center Leonardo da Vinci

o Transitional figure help to bring about a shift o Into many different things o Move beyond realism idealized representation of nature o Portray the real in idealized form Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper Raphael Madonna in the Meadow

Raphael School of Athens Michaelangelo Sistine Chapel Michaelangelo David Caravaggio

The Artist and Social Status Artists o Apprentices to masters o Patrons commissions o Leonardo, Raphael, & Michelangelo o Heroes eccentric creative genius The Northern Renaissance

Art was different: Italy o human form o realistic settings o fresco paintings North o Gothic Cathedrals o Stained glass windows o More emphasis on illuminated manuscripts

&Wooden panels for alter pieces Jan Van Eyck Oil paint Wide range of color Giovanni Arnolfini and his Bride Albrecht Duerer Adoration of the Magi

Section 3: The Origins of the Protestant Reformation Christian & Northern Renaissance Humanism Humanism spreads to Northern Europe Renaissance Humanism (Christian

Humanism) Antiquity Classics + Religion Holy Scriptures & writings of early Church leaders Simple religion distorted by the Middle Ages Reform Program

Reformers education inward religious feelings that would bring about reform in the church and society Erasmus The Handbook of the Christian Knight Christianity guiding philosophy rather than

practices stressed by the medieval church inner v. external religiousness Version of the Bible errors New version

Humorous criticism of corruption Clergy Foundation of the Reformation Latin Vulgate Praise of Folly Sir Thomas Moore Italian Humanist

Learning = Service to the State Christian family life Utopia ("nowhere) Idealistic life and institutions Island (New World) o critique on society - Economic, Social, and Political problems New Social System

Church & Religion on the Eve of the Reformation Corruption in the Church Failure of Renaissance Popes Parish Priests The Search for salvation

o Pope Julius II warrior pope o Fredrick the wise o Relics o Indulgences o Modern Devotion o disillusionment with Catholic clergy Martin Luther What must I do to be saved?

Early Luther Germany Life as a Monk University of Wittenberg Salvation? o faith alone-the key to salvation o Bible Religious Truth Martin Luther

The Indulgence Controversey Upset over the selling of Indulgences o Johann Tetzel o Selling Indulgences "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs"

95 Theses o Pope Leo X "some drunken German monk who will amend his ways when he sobers up" Martin Luther A Break with the Church o Sacraments o Doctrine of Salvation

Edict of Worms o Charles V "A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity must be wrong!" o Frederick of Saxony Martin Luther Rise of Lutheranism

o Protesting Prince's of Germany religious and political reasons o Catholic Mass o Married Ministers The Peasants War Martin Luther Politics of German Reformation o Religious and Political reasons for staying

Catholic Difficulties o Francis I (France) o Pope Clement VII o Ottoman Empire o Politics of Holy Roman Empire Peace of Augsburg

Section 4: The Spread of the Protestant Reformation & the Catholic Response Spread of Protestant Reformation of Protestant Reformation C Spread oncept Map Assignment The Social Impact of the

Reformation Family o center of human life o status of women o literacy Education o schools for everyone

o responsibility of the State Religious Practices & Popular Culture o curtailing of religious practices o ending of religious festivals and holy days The Catholic Reformation Revival of the Old o St Teresa of Avila o Capuchins Society of Jesus

o Ignatius of Loyola o The Spirti 2 Major Activities o education o missions A Revived Papacy

Pope Paul III o Roman Inquisition or Holy Office Council of Trent Issues Moderates Conservatives Final Doctrine: Traditional Scripture Faith & Good Works Sacraments Clergy

Purgutory

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