Chapter 2: Groups Social Psychology by Tom Gilovich, Dacher Keltner, and Richard Nisbett What is a Group? two or more people who: interact with each other directly or indirectly share common goals/share norms have a stable relationship are interdependent perceive they are part of a group not a collection of people in a lobby, street corner, or elevator Group Formation and Function
People satisfy important needs (e.g., belonging, safety) reach goals they cannot achieve alone boost their self-identity Groups join groups to:
function through: roles- expected behavior for different positions status- social standing within group norms- rules for behaving within group cohesiveness- forces that cause members to stay in group (attraction, desire for status) Decision-Making in Groups Social Decision Schemes- rules comparing initial group views to final group decisions majority-wins rule- group opts for whatever decision majority agreed with initially truth-wins rule- group eventually accepts correct decision first-shift rule- groups adopt decision consistent with direction of first shift in opinion
these simple rules predict final outcome 80% of time Consequences of Group Decision Making Conventional wisdom suggests groups would make better decisions than individual Greater informational resources More likely to identify and correct errors Not clear if groups make better decisions than individuals
Group polarization Groupthink Mixed research support Group Polarization Group Polarization- tendency to shift toward more extreme positions after group discussion Risky Neutral Cautious
Groupthink Mixed Research Support Most group decision research takes place in lab 0.3 Groups are not real groups 0.2
Group development theories suggest groups need time to develop effective interaction patterns (e.g., Tuckman and Jensen) Forming Storming Norming
Performing Lab groups dont have time to develop so effectiveness could hinge on personality of most competent member 0.1 Group Added Value 0 -0.1 Forming Activity No Forming Activity
-0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.5 -0.6 Best Member Higher SE Worst Member Higher SE Social Facilitation Definition: The effect, positive or negative, of the presence of others on performance. 1. Initial Research
a. Triplett (1898) Social Facilitation 2. Resolving the Contradictions a. Zajoncs theory mere presence. Dominant response Sources of Arousal Evaluation Apprehension A concern about looking
bad in front of others Cottrell, et, al. 1968 Sources of Arousal Mere presence Presence of others is arousing Cockroaches probably
not worried about looking bad Markus (1978) Social Facilitation Distraction-Conflict Theory Tendency to pay attention to audience or coactors Organism performing some task Presence of audience or coactors
Conflict Tendency to pay attention to task Increased arousal Social facilitation effects Tendency to slack off when individual effort cannot be monitored
Social Loafing Latane, Williams, and Harkins (1979) Sound Pressure per Person 10 Potential productivity 8 Pseudogroup productivity 6 4
Actual group productivity 2 0 1 2 3 4 Group Size 5
6 Conflict in Groups Conflictperceived incompatible interests Other causes of conflict besides incompatibility Faulty attributionserroneous blame Poor communicationmisinterpreted criticism, grudges Tendency to see own views as objective, while others have biased views Status quo biaspowerful groups often inaccurate
Type A personalityhighly competitive and hostile Strategies for Dealing With Conflict Concern for Achieving Goals Competing Collaborating High Distributive Dimension Integrative Dimension
Compromising Low Accommodating Avoiding Low High Concern for Relationships Perceived Fairness in Groups The presence of others affects our judgments
of fairness Judgments typically made by social comparison Fairness can be judged in terms of: outcomes (distributive justice) Equity distribution Equality distribution Need distribution
procedures (procedural justice) Equity Theory Perceived inequity creates a state of unpleasant tension that we are motivated to reduce How do we perceive inequity (unfairness)? According to Adams, inequity is perceived when our perception of the ratio of our Inputs to Outputs is different from that of a comparison other . Equity Theory Larry Moe Curly
Perceived inequity creates a state of unpleasant z z z tension that we are motivated to reduce How do we perceive inequity (unfairness)? According to Adams, inequity is perceived when our perception of the ratio of our Inputs to Outputs is different from that of a comparison other . amount of AnInputs example: work, KSAs, experience Outputs pay, promotions, perqs
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