Chapter 11 - Political Developments in the Early Republic
Chapter 19 The Worlds of North and South How was life in the North different from life in the South? 19.2 Geography of the North
19.2 Geography of the North Climate 4 distinct seasons More northern states
(Maine & Minnesota) have colder winters and shorter summers than others like Pennsylvania and
Ohio Natural Features Northern New England (Maine) Jagged coastline with bays and inlets (perfect harbors)
Rocky soil Thick forests Southern New England (Pennsylvania) & the Midwest (Michigan!)
Flat land Rich deposits of soil 19.5 Economy of the North Everything manufactured was once created by
hand Shirt, gun, carriage, etc In the late 1700s, inventors began creating machines that could do the work more quickly
and cheaper This was the beginning of the Industrial Revolution The Growth of Industry The Industrial Revolution began in England where
mill operators used machines to spin cotton into thread and weave those threads into cloth These devices were powered using steam The process was brought back to the U.S. and
improved. Goods could now be made cheaper and more plentiful Less-skilled laborers could find work In the North, the industrial owners were creating a
new source of great wealth They favored strong national government that could make improvements to manufacturing, trade, and transportation
Southerns looked down upon this, calling the factory workers wage slaves really? They were worried that northern interest might
overpower their way of life well Machines Make Agriculture More Efficient Inventions like the reaper could cut 28 times
more grain than a single man with a scythe By 1860, the value of Northern manufacturing was ten times greater than in the South The London 2012 Olympics opening ceremony
19.6 Transportation in the North John C. Calhoun (South Carolina congressman) proposed an infrastructure of roads and canals to bind the republic together. Building Better Roads
A National Road (a highway) was suggested in 1816, but James Monroe vetoed it because spending federal money on such things was unconstitutional. Today???
Fast Ships and Canals River travel was faster and cheaper than travel by land. Steam helped power ships traveling rivers
Sleeker ships were made to cross the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in record time. Anyone play Assassins Creed?? Traveling by Rail
Inspired by steamships, locomotives (trains) were invented to travel across the land (wherever tracks could be laid even across mountains). By 1860, more than 20,000 miles of track had been laid.
WRAP UP QUESTIONS: Who has the most to gain from the trains, boats, and roads? How does the North view this?
What do you think the South thought about this? 19.9 Society of the North Most people were neither wealthy nor powerful.
But they believed in the American dream that with hard work, ordinary people could acquire wealth and influence. By 1860 7/10 northerners still lived on farms
People moved to towns and cities, tripling the population of Boston, Philidephia, and New York. 50 of the largest cities were in the Northeast (except for Chicago and Detroit and 12 southern cities)
More than 1 million people lived in New York City African Americans in the North After the American Revolution, all northern states had begun ending the practice of slavery.
While free, African Americans were not considered equals to whites: they could not vote, hold office, serve on juries, attend white churches or schools. They started their own churches and businesses
Finding a job was hard, so they often worked as laborers or servants Immigrants Arrive in the North Between 1845-1860, 4 MILLION immigrants
moved to northern parts of America Most were from Ireland or Germany because of drought and revolution, respectively Some came with money to buy land and farms,
but most found jobs in mills and factories This created anti-immigrant feelings Riots Discrimination
WRAP UP QUESTIONS: What is your ancestry? 19.3 Geography of the South Climate
Mild winters and long, hot, humid summers Plentiful rainfall Perfect for growing crops! Here come the memes!!
Natural Features (outer parts) Wide coastal plains on the outer edge from Chesapeake Bay and around to the Gulf Coast Swamps and marshes
Natural Features (interior 1) Fertile lowlands with plains full of rich soil perfect for raising crops
Natural Features (interior 2) Appalachian Mountains Some farmers worked on land so steep that they keep falling out of their cornfields
19.4 Economy of the South The economy of the North was able to successfully run factories mostly because of the cooler climate made it easier to run the machines most of the year.
Based on the geography (and your own knowledge), what would be the primary economy of the pre-Civil War South? What about today?
Most white southerners were agrarians. Some were small time farmers who could provide for their family and a little extra income Some were plantation owners, who did not have to do the work of growing crops themselves What does that compare to today?
Plantation owners used slaves to grow cash crops such as The practice of slavery and slaves had begun
to decline in the 1790s American products could be purchased cheaper from other British colonies In addition to those, cotton was a promising
crop, but the cleaning process made it not worth the effort. Then came Eli Whitney King Cotton
The cotton gin did the same work as 50 laborers YAY! Within 10 years, cotton sales earned more money than all other US exports
WHOOHOO!! How do you think the North reacted to this? Expanding Demand for Land and Slaves
However, instead of lightening the work of slaves (or ending slavery it altogether), Whitneys invention INCREASED the demand NOOOOOOOOOOO!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Between 1790-1850, the number of slaves rose from 500,000 to 3 million Cotton fields also wore out the soil, so they kept expanding West
Because apparently, no one listened during the Native American lecture on crop rotation How do you think King Cotton made the southerners feel?
As the Industrial Revolution began in the North, the southerners felt cotton was the best investment, and poured all of their money into slaves and land Their thought process: We purchase all our luxuries and necessities from the North
One notable exception to all of this was the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia They employed mostly slaves, but the factory produced ammunition for the U.S. army, as well as steam engines,
rails, and locomotives. While hugely beneficial, most white southerners made their living off the land. RANDOM QUESTION: What about the location of this makes it unique?
With the impending split of the country, what predictions can you make about this factory? 19.7 Transportation in the South Most rail lines were in the North
What are some reasons why they werent in the South? Because of these obstacles, southerners continued transporting people and goods via
rivers. Slow current Broad channels Relatively cheaper than land or building rails Once the product (typically cotton) reached
the sea, it was loaded onto ships headed for? Being the primary source of transportation in the South, many cities formed on waterways
Cincinnati, OH & KY Memphis, TN Nashville, TN St. Louis, MO New Orleans, LA
Baton Rouge, LA Whenever federal funding for internal improvements came up (roads, railways, canals), how do you think the South
responded? Why?? Can you connect this to current legislation?
Some railroads were ultimately built in the South Southerners were proud of this because the iron rails used to build this railroad came from Virginia's Tredegar Iron Works.
By 1860, the South had 10,000 miles of rail compared to the Norths 20,000 19.8 Society of the South
President Andrew Jacksons policies and reform movements did not make a huge impact on way of life for southerners. Wealth = land + slaves Social structure was: Rich plantation owners
White farmers & workers African Americans Slavery comprised every aspect of life for the South
True for both black and white True for religion Church officials defended the practice Differed from the North, whose leaders taught it was unChristian
Huck Finn example As long as the culture and economy was preserved, the South had little incentive to make progress economically or culturally.
The South grew, but it did not develop. White Southerners Wealthy plantation owners
Dominated the economy and politics Treasured leisure Enjoyed parties and social visits Sons went to universities Daughters rarely educated, but were instead brought
up to be gracious wives and hostesses Most white southerners Owned some land Only 1 in 4 owned even one slave Worked their own fields and made what they needed
The poor white southerners 10% were too poor to own land Rented mountain or forest land and paid with the crops they raised
Public schools There were only a few, and the ones that existed were A distance to travel Inferior to those in the North
Because of this, many white children were illiterate African Americans in the South A small group of African Americans were free
They were forced to wear special badges pay extra taxes live separate from whites
Most lived in cities and worked as craftspeople, servants, or laborers The majority were slaves who worked as
Cooks Carpenters Blacksmiths House servants Nursemaids
Although most were field hands who worked from dawn to dusk END
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