Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Warm Up Discuss and write down examples with your teammates for the following questions: 2. Jared Diamond refers to the people of New Guinea as among the worlds most culturally diverse and adaptable people in the world, yet they have much less than modern Americans. Diamond has developed a theory about what has caused these huge discrepancies among different countries, and he says it boils down to geographic luck. Give several examples from the film to support Diamonds theory.

8. Do you agree with Jared Diamond when he says of a civilizations ability to gain power, wealth, and strength, whats far more important is the hand that people have been dealt, the raw materials theyve had at their disposal. Why or why not? Chapter 10 AGRICULTURE WARM UP QUESTION: If you had to be a farmer, what would you want to farm? Why? Economic Activities

Primary Raw Materials: Agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry Secondary These three levels are often subdivided within the

economic activity group tertiary as services may be utilized by both consumers & producers. Manufacturing: capital goods

(for industry) and consumer Tertiary Consumer: retail and personal services; entertainment Quaternary

Business/Producer services: trade, insurance, banking, advertising, transportation and information services Quinary Public (government) Services: health, education, Key Issue 1: Where Did Agriculture Originate?

Origins Of Agriculture Crop and Animal Hearths Hunters And Gatherers Contemporary Hunting And Gathering Invention Of Agriculture Two Types Of Cultivation Location Of First Vegetative Planting Location Of First Seed Agriculture Diffusion Of Seed Agriculture

Vocabulary agriculture crop Agricultural Revolution subsistence agriculture commercial agriculture vegetative planting seed agriculture prime agricultural land agribusiness Mapping Agricultural Regions

Differences between Commercial and Subsistence Agriculture ON YOUR PLACE MAPS: INDICATE EACH OF THE MAJOR ANIMAL HEARTHS WITH A SYMBOL FOR EACH. Animal Hearths Buuuuuut, where are the cats?

Figure 10-3 ON YOUR PLACE MAPS: LABEL EACH OF THE MAJOR CROP HEARTHS YOU RECOGNIZE Crop Hearths Figure 10-2 Agricultural Origins and Regions Origins of agriculture Hunters and gatherers

Before the invention of agriculture, all humans probably obtain the food they needed for survival by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants (including berries, nuts, fruits, and roots). Hunters and gatherers lived in small groups, usually fewer than 50 persons, because a larger number would quickly exhaust the available resources within walking distance. TODAY

Estimated 250,000 people living in isolated areas still live as hunter-gatherers Arctic, and the interiors of Africa, South America and Australia Invention of agriculture Agriculture is the deliberate modification of Earths surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain.

Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution c. 8000 B.C. Location of Agricultural Hearths Location of agricultural hearths Vegetative planting (aka root cropping) is

the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots [Cassava (manioc or yucca), yams, sweet potatoes] Agricultural Origins and Regions Location of agricultural

hearths Seed agriculture the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization rice

millet sorghum flax barley wheat Seed Agriculture Hearths Seed agriculture also originated in several hearths and diffused from those elsewhere. Carl Sauer: 11 areas of agriculture innovations

Agriculture probably did not originate in one location, but began in multiple, independent hearths, or points of origin. From these hearths agricultural practices diffused across Earths surface. Animal Domestication The best animals to farm are large, plant eating mammals. Over the years, humans have probably tried to domesticate all of them, usually without success. Despite repeated efforts, Africans have never domesticated the elephant. Animals which make suitable candidates for domestication have the following characteristics:

start giving birth in their first or second years have one or two offspring a year (so their productivity is high) behaviorally they need to be social animals (males, females and the young live together as a group) get along with humans internal social hierarchy which means that if humans can control the leader, they will also gain

control of the whole herd. Jared Diamond counted 148 different species of wild, plant eating, terrestrial animals that weigh over 100 pounds. Of those, we have only successfully farmed for any length of time just 14. They are: goats, sheep, pigs, cows, horses, donkeys, Bactrian camels, Arabian camels, water buffalos, llamas, reindeers, yaks, mithans and Bali cattle. All but one [llamas of South America] of these animals are native to Asia, North Africa and Europe. The Big Four livestock animals: cows, pigs, sheep and goats were native to the Middle East. U.S. Farms by Region The number of farms in the United

States in 2008 is estimated at 2.2 million, 0.2 percent fewer than in 2007. Total land in farms, at 919.9 million acres, decreased 1.56 million acres, or 0.2 percent, from 2007. The average farm size was 418 acres, unchanged from the previous year. The decline in the number

of farms and land in farms reflects a continuing consolidation in farming operations and diversion of agricultural land to nonagricultural uses. NOTE: Map at left from 2002 but change in farms from 2002 to 2008 would show little visible change on the map.

Spring Wheat Winter Wheat Differences Between Subsistence And Commercial Agriculture Purpose Of Farming Percentage Of Farmers In The Labor Force Use Of Machinery Farm Size Relationship Of

Farming To Other Businesses Classifying Agricultural Regions LDCs = subsistence agriculture MDCs = commercial agriculture Subsistence vs. commercial agriculture Subsistence agriculture is the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmers family

Commercial agriculture is the production of food primarily for sale off the farm Practice Purpose Subsistence agriculture LDCs Personal consumption

Commercial agriculture MDCs Grow crops and raise animals primarily for sale off the farm for profit Labor force On average 55% of workforce engaged in

farming On average 5% of workforce engaged in farming Machinery Farm size Off farm contact Human and animal powered

tools Very small Occasional surplus sold Mechanized farm machines, computer technology and science agribusiness farms one part of a large food

Large [US production industry average in 2008 = including food 418 acres] processing, packaging, sorting, distributing, and retailing Agricultural Workers Figure 10-5 Area of Farmland Per Tractor

Figure 10-6 Farmland Loss in Maryland Fig. 10-1-1: Overlaps of soil quality, environmental and cultural features, and population growth may show areas of greatest threat of farmland loss in Maryland. Baltimore

Washington DC Baltimore and Washington DC population concentrations have merged over time. A serious problem in the United States has been the loss of the most productive farmland, known as prime agricultural land, as urban areas sprawl into the surrounding countryside. An Introduction to Human Geography

The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein Question: Who is Derwent Whittlesey? AGRICULTURE Classifying Agricultural Regions Mapping agricultural regions World Agricultural Regions: Derwent Whittlesey, 1936 11 main agricultural regions

Climate influences the crop that is grown and/or animals raised Relationship exists between climate and agriculture 5 important to LDCs 6 important to MDCs

Dry climate often equates to livestock ranching rather than farming Culture influences agriculture Hog (pig/swine) production low to nonexistent in predominantly Muslim (and Jewish) regions due to religious taboo on pork. Team Pop Quiz Create 2 columns: LDCs & MDCs Fill out the 11 World Agricultural Regions in the

proper columns. World Agriculture Regions World Climate Regions Koppen Climate Regions Map Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Shifting cultivation Most prevalent in low-latitude, A-type climates Two features:

Land is cleared by slashing and burning debris Slash-and-burn agriculture Land is tended for only a few years at a time Types of crops grown vary regionally Traditionally, land is not owned individually World Agriculture Regions

Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Pastoral nomadism (herding domesticated animals) Found primarily in arid and semiarid B-type climates Animals are seldom eaten (products sold) Type of animal depends on the region

The size of the herd indicates power and prestige For example, camels are favored in North Africa and SW Asia Transhumance practiced by some pastoral nomads Vertical (mountains to valleys during seasons) Horizontally (across land affected by politics, war, climate, economy, etc.)

Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Various approaches combine some reliance on sedentary agriculture with the herding of livestock. Some pastoral nomads obtain grain from sedentary subsistence farmers. More commonly, women and children of a nomadic group tend to crops at a fixed location. Nomads may hire worker to practice sedentary agriculture.

Some nomads will remain in a place and World Agriculture Regions Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Intensive subsistence Found in areas with high population and agricultural densities

Especially in East, South, and Southeast Asia To maximize production, little to no land is wasted Intensive with wet rice dominant Intensive with wet rice not dominant (rice is still grown there) World Agriculture Regions Rice Production Figure 10-12

Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Plantation farming Found in Latin America, Africa, and Asia Products are grown in LDCs but typically are sold to MDCs Plantations specialize in one or two cash crops Important crops = coffee, sugarcane, cotton, rubber, tobacco, aaaaaaand pineapple A large labor force is usually needed in sparsely settled regions

World Agriculture Regions Where are Agricultural Regions in MDCs? Commercial agriculture in developed countries can be divided up into six main types:

Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Dairy Farming Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming Grain Farming Mediterranean Agriculture Livestock Ranching Agribusiness is commonly used to refer to these types of farming listed, because the family farm

is not an isolated activity but is integrated into a large food-production industry. Where are Agricultural Regions in MDCs? Mixed crop and livestock farming

Most distinctive characteristic is the integration of crops and livestock. Most of the crops are fed to animals instead of humans. Typical example devotes nearly all land area to growing crops but derives more than of its income from the sale of animal products. e.g. beef and eggs Permits farmers to distribute the workload more evenly through the year, because crops require less attention, aside from planting and harvesting them. Typically involves crop rotation, practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil.

Where are Agricultural Regions in MDCs? Dairy Farming

Most important type of commercial agriculture in the first ring outside the large cities because of transportation factors. Ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied is the milkshed. Advancements in modes of transportation have increased the radius of milksheds to 500 km. (300 mi.) Process Dairy farmers typically sell their milk to wholesalers who later distribute it to retailers. Retailers then sell it to consumers in shops or at home. Two primary challenges: Labor-intensive & Expense of winter feed World Agriculture Regions

Corn (Maize) Production Figure 10-15 Milk Production Figure 10-17 Where are Agricultural Regions in MDCs? Grain farming The largest commercial producer of grain = the United States

Livestock ranching Practiced in marginal environments Mediterranean agriculture Based on horticulture Commercial gardening and fruit farming Truck farms

Agriculture in Developed Regions Where is Gardening Agriculture Distributed? and Fruit Farming Commercial

Predominant type of farming in southeastern U.S. Commonly referred to as truck farming from the Middle English word, truck, meaning bartering or exchange of commodities. Grow many of the following fruits and vegetables that consumers in developed countries demand: Apples Asparagus Cherries Lettuce Mushrooms

Agriculture in Developed Regions Where is Agriculture Distributed? Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming

Some of the fruits and vegetables are sold fresh to consumers, but most are sold to large processors for canning or freezing. Truck farms are highly efficient large-scale operations that take full advantage of machines at all stages of the growing process. Labor costs are kept down by hiring migrant farm workers. Specialization in a few crops is common. Agriculture in Developed Regions

Grain Farming Where is Agriculture Distributed?

Distinguished from mixed crop and livestock farming, because crops are grown primarily for human consumption. Farms sell their output to manufacturers of food products, such as breakfast cereals and bread. Characteristics of a Typical Grain Farm Heavily mechanized Oriented to consumer preferences Grain Imports and Exports Figure 10-32 Wheat Production

Figure 10-19 Agriculture in Developed Regions Mediterranean Agriculture Every site practicing this form of agriculture borders a sea, and most are on west coasts of continents.

Farmers derive a smaller percentage of income from animal products. Most crops are grown for human consumption. Prevailing sea winds provide moisture and moderate the winter temperatures. Horticulture, which is the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers, and tree crops form the commercial base.

Along the Mediterranean Sea, olives and grapes are two most important cash crops. Approximately half of the land here is used to grow cereals. Where is Agriculture Distributed? Agriculture in Developed Regions Livestock Ranching Ranching is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. Well suited for semiarid or arid land Practiced in developed countries where vegetation is too sparse and soil too poor to support crops.

Historically, ranchers sought to move their cattle from Texas to Chicago, because the cattle were worth more money farther north. Today, ranching has become part of the meatprocessing industry where new methods of breeding and sources of water and feed are embraced. MEAT PRODUCTION (primary) World Agriculture Regions Revolutions Neolithic Revolution OR Agricultural Revolution


WAS VERY RANDOM NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION Transition from hunter/gather society into systematic agriculture and domestication of animals. c. 8000ish BC or 8000-12000BC It allowed people to begin to settle down and build surpluses of food (food security) which allowed specialization, and inevitably civilizations. Mid East/Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia/SW

Asia Improves CBR, decreases CDR. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION STEAMPUNK STAR WARS INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Advancements to transportation and technologies that resulted from the Industrial Revolution greatly increased access to food, production, preservation. This can include: railroads and trains,

better refrigeration, advanced factory systems to speed up production, new methods of crop rotation, better equipment (iron plows, cotton gin, spinning jenny, flying shuttle, etc.). AD 1650-1900 Began in England and spread mostly to Green & Bioengineering Revolutions Green Revolution Green Revolution had massive advancements of genetically modified

organisms in agriculture. This has allowed greater yields of crops, more productivity from animals and greatly increased agricultural output. Beginning in the 1940s. Primarily affects LDCs (India, China, Latin America) with the diffusion of higher-yield seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and biotechnology. Green Revolution Green Revolution had massive advancements of genetically

modified organisms in agriculture. This has allowed greater yields of crops, more productivity from animals and greatly increased agricultural output. Beginning in the 1940s. Primarily affects LDCs (India, China, Latin America) with the diffusion of higher-yield seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and biotechnology. This revolution sought to eradicate famine in many nations and massively increase food production, by effectively ending subsistence agriculture and replacing it with commercial agriculture. The idea was to transplant many of the systems, ideas and technology of Western farming into (mainly) Asian agriculture, whilst researching and utilizing the resources

Asian countries had. Bioengineering Revolution The Green Revolution could not have happened without the major advancements of MDCs in Genetically Modifying Organisms (GMOs). In agriculture, currently marketed genetically engineered crops have traits such as resistance to pests, resistance to herbicides, increased nutritional value, or production of valuable goods such as drugs (pharming). Products under development include crops that are able to thrive in environmental conditions outside

the species' native range or in changed conditions in their range (e.g. drought or salt resistance). Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? Challenges for commercial farmers Access to markets is important The von Thnen model (1826) The choice of crop to grow is related to the proximity to the market Contains six assumptions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. There is only one market available, selfsufficient with no outside influence. All farmers are market oriented, producing goods for sale. (Not subsistence.) The physical environment is uniform; there are no rivers or mountains. All points at equal distances from the market have equal access to the market.

All farmers act to maximize profits. The dietary preferences of the population are those of Germanic Europeans. Land rent The main concept is land rent or land value, which will decrease as one gets farther away from central markets. Rent is highest in the closest proximity to urban markets. (Bid-Rent Theory) Thus, agricultural products that have intensive

land use, have high transportation costs and were in great demand would be located close to urban markets. Major concepts: Distance from the city Preservation of food Amount of space So. Dairying and gardening of fruits and vegetables would be closer to the urban market while 2. Timber and firewood for fuel and

building materials would be in the second zone. 3. Mixed farming, commercial grain and orchards and extensive cattle ranching would be located farther away. Transportation is cheap: the animals can walk to the city for butchering. 1. Why? Some products spoiled more quickly, needed more sensitive transportation, or generate higher prices at market

These products mean the farmer can afford higher land rent. It doesnt always look the same: Inference of Von Thunens Model to Continental United States Forest Wheat Dairy Forest

Wheat Beef Cattle and Sheep Corn and Soybeans Vegetables Beef Cattle and Sheep Specialty Crops

Cotton and Tobacco Dairy Vegetables Corn and Soybeans Cotton and Tobacco Assumptions 1. New York City the only market 2. Crops ranked by rent paying ability 3. No terrain or climatic variation

A Assumptions 1. New York City the only market 2. Crops ranked by rent paying ability 3. No terrain variation 4. Climatic variation considered Specialty Crops B

What is ridge tillage? Ridge tillage resembles contemporary and traditional cropping systems in which plants grow on a hill or bund. Cotton, for example, is often grown on ridges for purposes of irrigation. In ridge tillage the ridges are a product of cultivation of the previous crop and are not tilled out after harvest. The planter may remove part of the ridge top,

but before planting there is no tillage. This provides potential advantages in soil conservation and weed management. Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? Challenges for commercial farmers Overproduction

Agricultural efficiencies have resulted in overproduction Especially commodity crops like corn Government subsidies encourage specific production Demand has remained relatively constant As a consequence, incomes for farmers are low Sustainable agriculture

Sensitive land management Integrated crop and livestock Less usage of pesticides and chemicals Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? Challenges for subsistence farmers Population growth International trade Drug crops Changes in land usage (ie. Brazil livestock) Drug Trade

Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? Strategies to increase food supply Expanding agricultural land Increasing productivity Identifying new food sources

The green revolution: The application of science to increasing agricultural productivity, including the breeding of high-yield varieties of grains, the effective use of pesticides, and improved fertilization, irrigation, mechanization, and soil conservation techniques. The impact on environment, geopolitics or the world economy are not completely understood yet. Cultivating oceans, developing higher-protein cereals, and improving palatability of foods Increasing trade Agricultural Land and Population

Figure 10-28 DAY COMMODITY CHAINS Talk in your groups about: Definition Examples in the world Different challenges created by it a sequential process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities and, finally,

distribute them to consumers.

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