Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Chapter 23 War and Society, 1914-1920 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved. Europes Descent into War

First World War (1914-1918) Archduke Franz Ferdinand Triple Alliance Triple Entente All sides expect quick victory, all are disappointed Bloody trench warfare stalemate on Western front (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved American Neutrality Wilsonneither threatened vital American

interest Edward M. House and Robert Lansing Wilsons pro-British advisors William Jennings Bryan Against pro-British tilt Germany had no advocates in government British blockade of Germany Violates American neutrality, Wilson protests (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Submarine Warfare Unterseeboot (U-boat) Lusitania (May 1915) 1198 killed, 128 Americans Germans had warned the passenger was a target Bryan resigns when Wilson refuses to criticize both British blockade and U-boats Sussex pledge (1916) 1916 preparedness measures (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Peace Movement Womens Peace Party Carrie Chapman Catt Jane Addams Midwestern Progressives Robert LaFollete, George Norris

American Union Against Militarism German and Irish Americans (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Wilsons Vision: Peace without Victory He kept us out of war campaign slogan League of Nations Wilsons crucial elements of lasting peace:

Freedom of the seas Disarmament Democratic self-government Security against aggression (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved German Escalation Russias imminent collapse Germany concentrates on Britain and

France Renew U-boat war "Zimmerman telegram American declaration of war: make the world safe for democracy (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved American Intervention Russian revolution (1917) Vladimir Lenin and Bolshevik Party

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) Publication of secret Allied treaties German 1918 offensive American Expeditionary Force (AEF) John J. Pershing Allied 1918 offensive Armistice 11-11-1918 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Mobilizing for Total War

Compared to Europe, the U.S. was spared most of the wars ravages Wars effect on American society Biggest campaign for U.S. since Civil War Wilson asked for total commitment from U.S. citizens Conscription In army, agriculture, transportation, industry (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Organizing Industry Food Administration

Herbert Hoover U.S. Railroad Administration William G. McAdoo U.S. economy did well in war overall War Industries Board Bernard Baruch (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Organizing Civilian Labor Labor shortage

Great Migration Labor movement Union membership Industrial democracy National War Labor Board (NWLB) Taft and Gompers (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Occupations with Largest Increase in Women, 1910-1920 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Total Membership of American Trade Unions, 1900-1920 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Organizing Military Labor Selective Service Act (1917) African-Americans segregated and barred from combat IQ tests prove superiority of white AngloSaxons Also prove half of all men are mental age 13 or less Alvin York 369th regiment

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Paying the Bills Raise income tax rates Wealthiest hit hard, 67% top income tax rate Corporations pay excess profits tax "Liberty Bonds" (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The First World War and the Federal Budget (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Arousing Patriotic Ardor Committee on Public Information (CPI) George Creel Expand democracy at home Labor and industrial democracy Womens suffrage

(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Wartime Repression CRI anti-German propaganda Liberty cabbage and liberty sandwiches (Sour kraut and hamburgers)

Immigration Restriction Act (1917) German Americans: object of hatred Eighteenth Amendment: Prohibition, 1919 Espionage, Sabotage and Sedition Acts IWW American Protective League (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

The Failure of the International Peace Germanys surrender, 1918 Wilson goes to Versailles Conference All combatants publicly accept Wilsons Fourteen Points basis for negotiation Free trade and freedom of the seas

Dispute resolution through mediation Self-determination for nations League of Nations (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles Allies not committed to 14 Points God gave us 10 commandments & we broke them, Wilson gave us 14 points. We shall see Georges Clemenceau, France

Vittorio Orlando, Italy walks out Treaty of Versailles (1919) No free trade Partial self-determination Germany war guilt clause lost land and paid reparations (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved The League of Nations

Wilson felt creation of League as most important point Would redeem failings of Versailles Conference Article X Endowed the League with power to punish aggressor nations via economic isolation and military retaliation (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Wilson versus Lodge: The Fight over Ratification

Republicans win Senate majority in 1918 Irreconcilables" Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts Constitutional question of Article X

Desire of some to humiliate Wilson Pueblo, Colorado Treaty defeated (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved The Treatys Final Defeat Wilson would not accept alterations of the Treaty Lodge version of the Treaty was put to vote again and was defeated United States never ratified the Treaty of

Versailles Legacy of Treatys defeat (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved The Postwar Period: A Society in Convulsion Continued struggles between workers and employers Soldiers trying to reclaim livelihood vs. women, blacks, Hispanics who had been recruited to fill in

Returning black veterans Federal government moved to decentralize power that had occurred during the War (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Labor-Capital Conflict Boston Police strike (1919) Calvin Coolidge Steel strike (1919) (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

Radicals and the Red Scare Radicalism sentiment on the rise in postWWI labor movement Red Scare Russian Revolution splits U.S. Socialists "Palmer raids Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Racial Conflict and the Rise of Black Nationalism

New Negro Frustrated ad disappointed AfricanAmericans veterans Race riots Universal Negro Improvement Association Marcus Garvey (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Conclusion Effects of war on the U.S. social fabric Industrial workers, immigrants and radicals Fear, intolerance, and repression resulted in extreme class, ethnic, and racial tensions

Collapse of the Progressive Movement Wilsons dashed dreams for a new and democratic world order (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

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