Chapter 1: The Human Organism - Coastal Bend College
Chapter 1 The Human Organism Chapter 1: The Human Organism 1 Chapter 1 Outline 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology 1.2 Structural and functional organization of the human body A. 11 Organ Systems 1.3 Characteristics of Life 1.4 Biomedical Research 1.5 Homeostasis B. Negative feedback C. Positive feedback 1.6 Terminology and the Body plan D. E. F. G. H. I. Body Position Directional terms Body parts and regions Planes Body Cavities Serous Membranes Chapter 1: The Human Organism
2 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy Scientific discipline that investigates body structure & examines the relationship between structure and function Physiology Scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things. Goal: Understand & predict bodys responses to stimuli Understand how the body maintains conditions with a narrow range of values in a constantly changing environment. Study of the human body encompasses both because they are highly interwoven. Chapter 1: The Human Organism 3 Various types of study: Physiology:
Anatomy: Developmental Anatomy Embryology Cytology Histology Gross Anatomy Regional Systemic Surface Anatomy Anatomical Anomalies Cell Physiology Systemic Physiology Neurophysiology Cardiovascular physiology Exercise physiology Usually physiological study is systemic because functions occur in multiple places in the body. Pathology Chapter 1: The Human Organism 4 Anatomical Imaging
1. 2. 3. 4. Radiograph Ultrasound Computed tomography Dynamic subtraction angiography 5. Magnetic resonance imaging 6. Positron emission tomography Table 1.1 Page 3 Chapter 1: The Human Organism 5 1.2 Struc & Fxnl Organization- Human Body 1. Chemical Level: Involves interactions 2. Cellular Level: of atoms coming together to form more Basic structural & complex molecules. fxnal units of plants & animals 6. Organism: Any living thing
considered as a whole with all 11 organ systems working together. 3. Tissue Level: A group of similar cells & the materials surrounding them, this combination determines its fxn. 5. Organ System: Group of organs that together perform a common fxn or set of fxns and are therefore seen as a unit. 4. Organ Level: Struc composed of 2 or more tissue types that perform 1 or more fxns. Urinary bladder Chapter 1: The Human Organism 6 The 11 Organ Systems
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Integumentary System Skeletal System Muscular System Lymphatic System Respiratory System Digestive System 7. Nervous System 8. Endocrine System 9. Cardiovascular System 10.Urinary System 11. Reproductive System Chapter 1: The Human Organism 7 Organ Systems of the Body Integumentary System Anatomy: Skin, hair, nails, & sweat glands
Physiology: Provides protection Prevents water loss Helps produce vitamin D Skeletal System Anatomy: Bones, ligaments, joints, & associated cartilages Physiology: Provides protection & support Allows body movements Produces blood cells Stores minerals and fats Chapter 1: The Human Organism
Muscular System Anatomy: Skeletal muscle & tendons Physiology: Produces body movements Maintains posture Produces body heat 8 Organ Systems of the Body Lymphatic System Respiratory System Digestive System Anatomy: Anatomy: Anatomy:
Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, & other lymphatic organs Physiology: Maintains fluid balance Removes foreign substances from blood & lymph Combats disease Absorbs fat from digestive tract Lungs & Respiratory passages Physiology: Exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen Regulates blood pH
Physiology: Chapter 1: The Human Organism Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, & accessory organs Mechanical & chemical digestion Absorbs nutrients Elimination of wastes 9 Organ Systems of the Body Nervous System Anatomy: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, & sensory receptors Physiology:
Major regulatory system Detects sensations Controls Movements Physiological processes Intellectual functions Endocrine System Anatomy: Glands (ex/ adrenal gland) Physiology: Major regulatory system MANY fxns Influences Growth Metabolism Reproduction Cardiovascular System Anatomy:
Physiology: Chapter 1: The Human Organism Heart, blood vessels, & blood Transports Nutrients Gases Waste products Hormones Plays a role in the immune response Plays a role in body 10 Organ Systems of the Body Reproductive System Urinary System MALE Anatomy: Kidneys, Bladder, and
Associated ducts Physiology: Removes waste from blood Regulates Blood pH Ion balance Water balance Anatomy: Testes, Penis, Ducts, & Accessory structures Physiology: Produces and transfers sperm to female Produces hormones that influence sexual functions & behaviors Chapter 1: The Human Organism FEMALE Anatomy:
Ovaries, Vagina, Uterus, Mammary glands, & associated structures Physiology: Produces oocytes Site of: Fertilization Fetal development Produces milk for newborn Produces hormones that influence sexual functions & behaviors 11 1.3 Characteristics of Life 1. Organization 4. Growth Condition in which the parts of an organism have specific relationships to each other and those parts interact to perform
specific fxns Increase in the size or # of cells resulting in overall enlargement of all or part of an organism 5. Development 2. Metabolism All chemical reactions that take place in an organism Changes an organism undergoes through time beginning with fertilization and ending with death 3. Responsiveness Organisms ability to detect changes (Ds) in its internal or external environments and adjust to those Ds 6. Reproduction Production of new cells or new organisms Chapter 1: The Human Organism 12
1.4 Biomedical Research Although we use alternative methods for understanding the functions of the body (for example animal or cell studies), and these have lead to ground breaking advances in technology and health care, some things require human subjects of study. Although these methods are helpful they are not exacting, such that misinformation can occur. Chapter 1: The Human Organism 13 1.5 Homeostasis The existence & maintenance of a relatively constant environment in the human body that is suitable to support life. Set-point= perfection Normal range= we can live with Chapter 1: The Human Organism 14 1.5 Homeostasis: 2 systems are used to maintain this balance 1. Negative Feedback
Primary (1o) fxn maintain homeostasis and decrease any deviations from the norm. 2. Positive Feedback 1o fxn increase deviations from norm. Few in the body MOST are harmful Leads body away from homeostasis and in worst case into death Abnormal = Blood Loss Normal = Labor Chapter 1: The Human Organism 15 Parts of Feedback Systems Control Center Evaluates incoming information & makes a choice. When something is wrong this is what decides which action must be taken Receptor
Once that choice is made Effector Monitors/ watches something and reports its findings Helps carry out the action that will: 1. Increase deviation from homeostasis 2. Stop deviation from homeostasis Chapter 1: The Human Organism 16 e s ea r c n I Decrease BP in
BP Negative FB Receptor Baroreceptor in Blood Vessels Nerve Impulses Decrease the Heart Rate Output of Nerve Impulses Control Center Brain- Interprets input Chapter 1: The Human Organism 17 Positive FB Contractions Stretching of the Cervix Receptors
Stretch Sensitive Output *Birth* No more stretching No more feedback Effector: Uterus Contraction Cervix Stretches Control Center Brain- Interprets input Output Oxytocin Chapter 1: The Human Organism 18 Terminology and Body Plan 1. Anatomical Position Erect facing forward arms on the side with palms facing forward 2. Supine Lying face up 3. Prone Lying face down Directional Terms Body parts and regions Planes
Body Cavities Serous Membranes 19 Chapter 1: The Human Organism Medial Lateral Anterior (Ventral) Posterior (Dorsal) Superior (cephalic) Inferior (Caudal) Superficial Deep Proximal Distal Chapter 1: The Human Organism Dir ecti ona l Ter ms 20 Medial
Lateral Anterior (Ventral) Posterior (Dorsal) Chapter 1: The Human Organism Dir ecti ona l Ter ms 21 Medial Lateral Anterior (Ventral) Posterior (Dorsal) Superior (cephalic) Inferior (Caudal) Chapter 1: The Human Organism Dir ecti ona l Ter
ms 22 Medial Lateral Anterior (Ventral) Posterior (Dorsal) Superior (cephalic) Inferior (Caudal) Proximal Distal Chapter 1: The Human Organism Dir ecti ona l Ter ms 23 Medial Lateral Anterior (Ventral) Posterior (Dorsal)
Superior (cephalic) Inferior (Caudal) Superficial Deep Proximal Distal Chapter 1: The Human Organism Dir ecti ona l Ter ms 24 Upper Limb Lower Limb Central Region Head Neck Trunk 25 Chapter 1: The Human Organism
Bo dy Par ts Abdominal Regions 4 Quadrants 9 Regions Right hypochondriac region Right upper quadrant Left upper quadrant Right lower quadrant Left lower quadrant Right lumbar region
Right iliac region Chapter 1: The Human Organism Epigastric region Umbilical region Hypogastric region Left hypochondriac region Left lumbar region Left iliac region 26 Sagittal Plane
Pla nes Sections of an organ Transverse Plane Coronal plane Longitudinal Along its long axis Cross Section Right angle to its long axis Oblique Any angle along the long axis that isnt a right angle 27 Chapter 1: The Human Organism Sagittal Right and left halves Meidan- perfect halves Coronal/ Frontal Front and back halves Transverse/Horizontal Top and bottom halves
Dorsal Ventral Cranial Thoracic Spinal Mediastinum Pericardial Pleural Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal Pelvic 28 Chapter 1: The Human Organism Bo dy Ca viti es Serous Membranes Line the trunks cavities A. Parietal Lines the walls B. Visceral Covers the Organ There is a fluid that is secreted between A and B that helps
lubricate and protect organs from damage 29 caused by friction Chapter 1: The Human Organism Ser ous Me mbr ane s
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