Chap. 8 : Social Stratification

Chap. 8 : Social Stratification

Chapter 8 Social Stratification George Ritzer Presented by Rolande D. Dathis Chap. 8 : Social Stratification Dimensions of Social Stratification Social Stratification Social class

Status Consistency Status Power Status Inconsistency What is social stratification Social stratification refers a hierarchical differences and inequalities in economic

positions, as well as in other important areas, especially political power, and status of social honor( Ritzer 2015p253). Social stratification contd Max Weber defines three dimensions of strafication. Social class: a person economic position in the stratification system, particularly a persons occupation, which strongly based on a persons income and wealth.

Status: an individual s social prestige in the society. Social Stratification contd Power: a persons ability to make a person do what he/she wants him to do even if against his/her will. Social Stratification contd Status consistency: the occupation of the same position within the strafication system across

all the three dimensions. Status inconsistency: the occupation of diverse positions on diverse dimensions of the stratification system, Inequality: some positions within society pay a lot of money, status, and power while others pay less. Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007) Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007

Jean Braudrillard was one of the most important theorists of the last century. He emphasized that an economic and society described by symbolic exchange. Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007 Symbolic exchange A process whereby individuals substitute all types of things in an environment where the process of exchange is worth the most for the human relationships engaged in it, and not because of earned income.

Income The sum of money an individual receives from working in a given year, a business, or a variety of different assets and investments. Factors in Economic Inequality Income inequality Significantly higher since the 1970s, consisting of deindustrialization , technological advances, and political choices in the United States. Wealth inequality Much higher than income inequality. Wealth is an economic pointer of

class that offers a broad range of material advantages as well as status and power and Factors in Economic Inequality contd and power that have been passed down from generations. Poverty constructed in the capitalist system in almost all societies. There is absolute or relative poverty that has the tendency to excessively affect women and children.

Types of Poverty Absolute poverty is a condition in which people lack of the basic needs such as food and shelter to physically survive. Relative poverty is a condition in which the people (poor) lives with an average income less than half of average income of the US. Social Mobility Social Mobility

Types of Social Mobility Horizontal mobility Vertical Mobility Occupational Mobility

Achievement And Ascription Intergenerational Mobility Structural Mobility Intragenerational

Mobility Caste and Slavery What is social mobility? Social mobility is the capacity or incapacity to alter an individuals position in the social hierarchy.

Types of Social Mobility Vertical Mobility Movement of people from up and down in the social hierarchy. Horizontal Mobility Movement from one place to another within the same social class. Intergenerational Movement by children to a various social class than their fathers or and mothers. Types of Social Mobility Intragenerational The ability of an individual to

move up or down the steps over the course of his/her life. Occupational Changes in individuals work within generations. Structural Consequences of changes in the larger society on the position of people in the stratification system, mainly the occupational structure. Theories of Social Stratification

Structural/Functional Theories Colonialism Conflict/ Critical Theories Imperialism Postcolonialism

Inter/Actionist Theories World System Theory Theories of Social Stratification Structural/Functional theories All societies necessitate stratification to survive and to function well. Conflict/critical theories Stratified social structures encourage inequality and manage by those in the

upper levels of stratification. Inter/actionist theories Social stratification is a function of micro level individual actions and interactions among people in different positions(Ritzer 2015p 281). Conflict /critical theories implications for stratification Theories of colonialism System of thoughts that deal with the causes and effects of a powerful nation-states domination of another nationstate.

Colonialism A method of gaining control over another country or geographic area; generally involves settlers as well as formal mechanisms of control (Ritzer 2015p.278). Conflict /critical theories implications for stratification Imperialism Power of one country over another country exclusive of the creation of colonies. Postcolonialism The period in once- colonized areas after the colonizing power has left, even

though postcolonial idea and work could already be well under way previous to the colonizing power leaves. Conflict /critical theories implications for stratification World System Theory A system of though that centers on the stratification of nation-states on a global level. Consumption and Social Stratification

Stratified consumption ( Concepts ) Georg Simmel Social Class and Taste Thorstein Veblen Pierre Bourdieu

(quest for distinction ) Globalization and Stratification The Global North and South The Bottom Billion Race to the

Bottom The Global Digital Divide Consumption and Social Stratification Georg Simmel Elites in upper social ranks try to differentiate their consumption from the lower social class, but that which is consumed, such as style, trickles down. Thorstein Veblen Elites status is stated and

strengthened through conspicuous consumption examples that those below them cannot easily duplicate. Consumption and Social Stratification Pierre Bourdieu Elites seek to differentiate themselves from impersonators by the refinement and uniqueness of their taste. Globalization and Stratification The Global North and South The global North

consists of the most rich people and the most influential nations, which govern, control, exploit, and suppress the South, which has little power or prestige on the global stage. The Bottom Billion The bottom billion have incomes one-fifth of those in developing countries, lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, and greater risk of malnutrition(Ritzer 2015p 285). Globalization and Stratification The Race to the bottom Desperate nations try to

cut wages and working conditions in order to decrease fees and create a center of attention for multinational corporations. The Global Digital Divide Access to the internet is prohibitively and hampered by language barriers for those in the Global South(Ritzer 2015p285). End

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