Chapter 4 Linear Motion You can describe the motion of an object by its position, speed, direction, and acceleration. An object is moving if its
position relative to a fixed point is changing. 4.1 Motion Is Relative Even things that appear to be at rest move. When we describe the motion of one
object with respect to another, we say that the object is moving relative to the other object. A book that is at rest, relative to the table it lies on, is moving at about 30 kilometers per second relative to the sun.
The racing cars in the Indy 500 move relative to the track. The space shuttle moves at 8 kilometers per second relative to Earth below.
A racing car in the Indy 500 reaches a speed of 300 kilometers per hour relative to the track. The speeds of things in our environment are measured relative to the surface of Earth.
Although you may be at rest relative to Earths surface, youre moving about 100,000 km/h relative to the sun. 4.2 Speed People used to described moving things as simply slow or fast.
Galileo is credited as being the first to measure speed by considering the distance covered and the time it takes. Speed is how fast an object is moving. Any combination of units for distance and time that are useful
and convenient are legitimate for describing speed: miles per hour (mi/h) kilometers per hour (km/h) centimeters per day light-years per century
A cheetah is the fastest land animal over distances less than 500 meters and can achieve peak speeds of 100 km/h. The unit meters per second (m/s) is for speed. If a cheetah covers 50 meters in a
time of 2 seconds, its speed is 25 m/s. Instantaneous Speed A car does not always move at the same speed. You can tell the speed of the car at any instant by looking at the cars speedometer.
The speed at any instant is called the instantaneous speed. The speedometer gives readings of instantaneous speed in both mi/h and km/h.
Average Speed In a trip by car, the car will certainly not travel at the same speed all during the trip. The driver cares about the average speed for the trip as a whole. The average speed is the total
distance covered divided by the time. Average speed can be calculated easily: For example, a distance of 240 kilometers during a time of 4 hours is an average speed of 60 km/h:
The average speed is often quite different from the instantaneous speed. Whether we talk about average speed or instantaneous speed, we are talking about the rates at
which distance is traveled. To find distance traveled: total distance covered = average speed travel time For example, if your average speed is 80 kilometers per hour on a 4-hour trip, then
you cover a total distance of 320 kilometers. think! If a cheetah can maintain a constant speed of 25 m/s, it will cover 25 meters every second. At this rate, how far will it travel in 10 seconds? In 1 minute?
4.2 Speed think! If a cheetah can maintain a constant speed of 25 m/s, it will cover 25 meters every second. At this rate, how far will it travel in 10 seconds? In 1 minute?
Answer: In 10 s the cheetah will cover 250 m, and in 1 min (or 60 s) it will cover 1500 m. think! The speedometer in every car also has an odometer that records the distance traveled. If the odometer reads zero at
the beginning of a trip and 35 km a half hour later, what is the average speed? think! The traveled. If the odometer reads zero at the beginning of a trip and 35 km a half hour later, what is the average speed?
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