Archiving Census Documentation and Microdata: Preserving Memory, Increasing Stakeholders *** Wendy L. Thomas and Robert McCaa Minnesota Population Center http://www.ipums.org/International IPUMS International, funded by The National Science Foundation of the United Census 2000 symposium, ses 1 States sion 4 paper 26 Subtext: Preserving census metadata and microdata enhances value of census and increases stakeholders Microcomputer revolution --> new uses for census data, specifically microdata Effective use or microdata requires systematic preservation of metadata
Availability of microdata --> enhances the value of censuses and increases stakeholders IPUMS International consortium promotes preservation and use of census microdata Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 2 16th century Aztec census (in Nahuatl, 1530s): Here is the (from Museum of Antropology, home of... original Mexico City) ms. transcri bed transla ted
digitiz ed Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 3 Census microdata of the 21st (and late 20th) century: Who will preserve them? Will they be made usable? 12100102600700720000011210000104 Census 22200202600700720000011210000104 microdata: 32300100600700720000012123000000 Censuses are 42300200400700000000000000000000 costly Public goods should 52300200200700000000000000000000 be used
Where microdata are available, 62300200000700000000000000000000 they are used Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 4 official statistics that meet the test of practical utility are to be compiled and made available on an impartial basis by official statistical agencies to honor citizens entitlement to public information. -- UN Statistical Commission, 1994 Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 5 How anonymized census samples
became a standard statistical product: USA: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990: varying densities; gaining on CPS as most widely used demographic microdata Canada: - 1971, 1976, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996: varying designs - 1996: Data Liberation Initiative led to an explosion in of usage in research and teaching UK: - 1991: 2% individuals, 0.5% households hundreds of publications, thousands of users - 2001: double the densities. Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 6 IPUMSi helps five ways: 1. Inventory the worlds census microdata 2. Preserve endangered microdata and
documentation *** 3. Anonymize census microdata to preserve statistical confidentiality, using highest standards (Stat. Nether.) 4. Integrate datasets of selected countries using UN, Eurostat and other standards 5. Disseminate database free with complete copies to all partners Integrated Public Use Microdata Series - International Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 7 I P U M Si National experts in each
country are contracted to: P A Y S Assemble microdata and documentation Develop samples to minimize confidentiality risks and maximize robustness Design national integration plan census-by-census concept-by-concept code-by-code Write integrated documentation Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 8
Microdata...for any population I P U M Si or administrative division: I Nation, province, district, city, N ethnic group, etc. V E Example: Latin America, - 20 countries N - 67 censuses inventoried T - 1% - 100% sample densities O - 100,000 to 150 million cases R
19th century: 2 censuses 1960s: 14 1970s: I 17 E 1980scomplete : 16census data 1990s : Found: for S 17 17 Colombia 1973 and 16 other countries Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26
9 P I R P E U S M E Si R V E S UN Demographic Center for Latin America (CELADE, Santiago, Chile) ~3000 microdata tapes to be preserved and metadata (documentation) Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 10
Preserve against accident, deterioration and technological obsolescence Microdata: - transfer to stable media - use standard data storage protocols - entrust copies with at least two depositories Metadata: collect, catalogue, and reproduce - Enumeration forms (preserve all versions used) - Enumerator and data processing instructions - Codebooks (photocopies and scanned images) - Technical studies, evaluations, reports UN Stat. Div.: entire archive to be 2000 symposium, ses preserved,Census catalogued sion 4 paper 26 11 I P U
M Si A N O N Y M I Z E S Using the highest standards currently available: technical (Eurostat workshops) administrative (license agreement) Imagine a new statistical product: a scientifically anonymized
census microdata sample made up ofCensus unidentifiable individuals... 2000 symposium, ses 12 sion 4 paper 26 samples available for European countries (* = in IPUMSi consortium, * = negotiating) 16 countries available via PAU, 1990 round (3 in IPUMSi, 4 negotiating): Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, *Finland, *Hungary, *Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, *Norway, Poland, *Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, *Russia, Turkey, *UK 11 countries not available via PAU (2 in IPUMSi): *Austria, Croatia, Denmark, *France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, *Netherlands, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia
Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 13 International Monetary Funds General Data Dissemination System 52 countries with uniform standards All embrace strict standards of statistical confidentiality Prohibit disclosure of information which may identify individuals or entities 37 of 52 countries distribute anonymized census microdata samples Microdata samples are becoming standard statistical products Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 14
I N I T P E Census Standard:UN/ U G documentation Eurostat M R for compiled Principles & i S A Colombian Recs... Photos from Colombia microdata T integration project, FebruaryMarch, 2000: E 4 experts from DANE (census
S office) +7 Census academics (3 universities) 2000 symposium, ses 15 sion 4 paper 26 I P U M Si D I S S E M I N A
T E S International web-based access system End-User license agreement protects privacy and confidentiality assures proper use User selects countries, cases, variables, and samples--makes chronological &/or cross-national research possible using census microdata Open architecture software and mirror sites available to all partners Census 2000 symposium, ses
sion 4 paper 26 16 Population censuses became universal in the 20th century. Will census microdata ... in the 21st? 153 countries with 1 million + pop. in 2000 2000 round figures are provisional Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 17 additional information at: http://www.ipums.org/internati onal ****** Thank you Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26
18 Preserving Memory, Increasing Stakeholders 1. Introduction: Well-preserved documentation and data -->effective data collection, dissemination, use 2. Long-term preservation of documentation and data 3. Determining What to Preserve 4. Assessing Future Value 5. Inventory of available technology/ personnel/ knowledge 6. Conclusion: Preserve and make accessible census microdata to enhance value of census (IPUMSi ) Census 2000 symposium, ses sion 4 paper 26 19
Location of BedZED . Wallington, Greater London, in the SE of England, The UK's largest carbon neutral development. Urban Environments: How can urban living be made more sustainable? CASE STUDY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY . Beddington Zero Energy Development (BedZED)...
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