Respiratory Pathophysiology Chapter 12 Dr. Gary Mumaugh University of Northwestern - St. Paul Respiratory Overview Respiratory and circulatory systems are closely
related structurally and functionally External respiration occurs at the alveoli of the lungs with the capillaries This is where the O2 and CO2 exchange with the lung capillaries Internal respiration takes place between the blood capillaries and the tissue cells.
Major Functions of the Respiratory System To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of CO2 Respiration four distinct processes must happen Pulmonary ventilation moving air into and out of the lungs External respiration gas exchange between the lungs and the blood
Transport transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues Internal respiration gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues Respiratory System Consists of the respiratory and conducting zones
Respiratory zone Site of gas exchange Consists of bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli Respiratory System Conducting zone Provides rigid conduits for air to reach the sites
of gas exchange Includes all other respiratory structures (e.g., nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea) Respiratory muscles diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation Functional Anatomy
Nasal Cavity Respiratory Zone Respiratory Membrane Thin layer of cells- alveolar wall, basement membrane, and capillary wall Type I and II Pneumocytes- secrete pulmonary
surfactant Macrophages- take up particles that might interfere with normal function Specialized goblet cells- secrete mucous Reduces alveolar surface tension Gas Exchange CO2 transported in 3 forms:
Combined with globin protein in hemoglobin (Hb) of erythrocytes (25%) Changed into bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) by carbonic anhydrase (65%) CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3 Remains as gas dissolved in the plasma (10%)
Gas Exchange O2 transported in 2 forms: Binds to heme group in hemoglobin O2 + Hb HbO2 Remains as gas dissolved in plasma (1-2%)
Respiratory Defense Mechanisms Warm and humidify incoming air Branching of bronchial tree increases its contact with airway mucus Cilia prevents particles form reaching distal airways Mucus blanket Particle clearance (macrophages)
Antibacterial secretions (lysosome) Antiviral secretions (interferons) Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Disease Dyspnea Subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing
Orthopnea Dyspnea when a person is lying down Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Disease Cough
Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Disease Hypoventilation Hypercapnia Increased CO2 due to hyopventilation Hyperventilation Hypocapnia Decreased CO2 due to hyerpventilation Cyanosis
Clubbing Pain Finger clubbing is characterized by enlarged fingertips and a loss of the normal angle at the nail bed. Clubbing
Conditions Caused by Pulmonary Disease or Injury Hypercapnia Increased CO2 due to hyopventilation Hypoxemia Low blood oxygen Hypoxemia versus hypoxia The body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen. Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local.
Ventilation-perfusion abnormalities Shunting A pulmonary shunt is a physiological condition which results when the alveoli of the lungs are perfused with blood as normal, but ventilation (the supply of air) fails to supply the perfused region. Acute respiratory failure
Pneumothorax Pleural Abnormalities Pleural effusion Transudative effusion Exudative effusion Hemothorax Empyema Collection of pus
Infected pleural effusion Chylothorax The presence of lymphatic fluid in the pleural space secondary to leakage from the thoracic duct Pulmonary Disorders Restrictive lung diseases: Aspiration Passage of fluid and solid particles into the
lungs Atelectasis Collapse or closure of the lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange Compression atelectasis Absorption atelectasis Bronchiectasis Persistent abnormal dilation of the bronchi Pulmonary Disorders
Restrictive lung diseases: Bronchiolitis Inflammatory obstruction of the small airways Most common in children Occurs in adults with chronic bronchitis, in association with a viral infection, or with inhalation of toxic gases Pulmonary fibrosis
Pulmonary edema Excess water in the lungs Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Disorders Restrictive lung diseases: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
Fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury Injury to the pulmonary capillary endothelium Inflammation and platelet activation Surfactant inactivation Atelectasis
Dyspnea and hypoxemia Metabolic acidosis Hypoventilation Respiratory acidosis Further hypoxemia Hypotension, decreased cardiac output, death Pulmonary Disorders
Restrictive lung diseases: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Evaluation and treatment Physical examination, blood gases, and radiologic examination Supportive therapy with oxygenation and ventilation and prevention of infection Surfactant to improve compliance
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Pulmonary Disorders Obstructive lung diseases Airway obstruction that is worse with expiration Common signs and symptoms Dyspnea and wheezing
Common obstructive disorders: Asthma COPD Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Asthma
50 Pulmonary Disorders Obstructive lung diseases: Asthma Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways Inflammation results from hyperresponsiveness of the airways Can lead to obstruction and status asthmaticus
Symptoms include expiratory wheezing, dyspnea, and tachypnea Peak flow meters, oral corticosteroids, inhaled beta-agonists, and anti-inflammatories used to treat Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Pulmonary Disorders Obstructive lung diseases: chronic bronchitis Hypersecretion of mucus and chronic productive cough that lasts for at least 3 months of the year
and for at least 2 consecutive years Inspired irritants increase mucus production and the size and number of mucous glands The mucus is thicker than normal Bronchodilators, expectorants, and chest physical therapy used to treat Pulmonary Disorders
Obstructive lung diseases: emphysema Abnormal permanent enlargement of the gasexchange airways accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis Loss of elastic recoil Centriacinar emphysema Panacinar emphysema
How COPD develops Smoking causes increased mucus production and bronchial inflammation Nicotine paralyzes the mucociliary escalator Mucociliary escalator traps mucus, bacteria, irritants Nicotine blocks protein inhibitors which will eventually dissolve the alveoli
Pathophysiology Involves all four parts of the respiratory tract Bronchi
Bronchioles Alveoli Parenchyma Specific Pathophysiology Increased resistance to airflow Loss of elastic recoil Decreased expiratory flow rate
Alveolar walls frequently break because of the increased resistance of air flows The hyper inflated lungs flatten the curvature of the diaphragm and enlarge the rib cage The altered configuration of the chest cavity places the respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, at a mechanical disadvantage and impairs their force-generating capacity
Consequently, the metabolic work of breathing increases, and dyspnea increases Two types of COPD
Type A Pink Puffers Have mostly emphysema Need to breathe rapidly to exchange O2 and CO2 Have prominent dyspnea, the fast puffing keeps them from becoming cyanotic Most of the lung is perfused with blood exchange is not efficient because of fewer alveoli
Two types of COPD Type B Blue Bloaters Have mostly chronic bronchitis with bronchiolar obstruction and non-ventilated alveoli Results in shunting of cyanotic blood away from the area where there is no air in the lungs Results in pulmonary hypertension which leads to heart failure with peripheral swelling
Severe dyspnea with any exertion Diagnosis Smoker with hacking cough, sputum and dyspnea Type A thin, dorsal kyphosis, clubbing, pigeon breast (pectus carinatum) or funnel chest (pectus excavatum) Type B obese, swollen appearance, cyanotic X-ray findings
Large lung volumes hyperlucent, flat diapgragm, increased AP diameter Pulmonary function tests Airway obstruction and decrease, air trapping Blood gases Type A normal blood gases Type B marked hypoxemia and CO2 retention
Treatment of COPD
Bronchodilators Antibiotics Corticosteroids Supplemental oxygen therapy Chest physiotherapy to lose secretions Surgery to remove diseased lung tissue Lung transplantation
Films On Demand - COPD: The Struggle to Breathe Pulmonary Disorders Respiratory tract infections Tuberculosis
Tubercle formation Caseous necrosis Positive tuberculin skin test (PPD) Films On Demand - Tuberculosis: The White Death Pulmonary Disorders Respiratory tract infectionsacute bronchitis
Acute infection or inflammation of the airways or bronchi Commonly follows a viral illness Acute bronchitis causes similar symptoms to pneumonia but does not demonstrate pulmonary consolidation and chest infiltrates Pulmonary Disorders
Occlusion of a portion of the pulmonary vascular bed by a thrombus, embolus, tissue fragment, lipids, or an air bubble Pulmonary emboli commonly arise from the deep veins in the thigh Virchow triad Venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and injuries to the endothelial cells that line the vessels
Pulmonary Embolism Occurs when a blood clot is from the deep venous system travels to the lungs Usually involves veins of legs, arms and pelvis (pregnancy) Three conditions are put you at risk Increased coagulation of blood
Stress, surgery, injury, heart attack, severe illness Stasis or stagnation of blood flow Seen in conditions of immobility such as prolonged bed rest long car rides of plane flights in cramped position Damage to vessel wall or venous valves Stasis-induced phlebitis, soft-tissue injury, bad ankle sprain
Pathophysiology Pulmonary infarction of distal tissues occurs in a small number of cases Hemorrhage and edema of tissues distal to the clot is more common Vasoconstriction of pulmonary blood vessels occurs This causes a release of serotonin an vasoconstrictive amines which cause more constriction
Low blood pH causes even more constriction Right sided heart failure followed by left sided blood flow followed by syncope and sudden death S&S Sudden dyspnea Pleuritic chest pain with hemoptysis Can have syncope followed by death
Diagnosis Normal chest x-ray Perfusion lung scan shows absence of perfusion to involved arteries Pulmonary arteriography gold standard Contrast CT Decreased blood gases and increased pH
Treatment tPA tissue plasminogen activator if potentially life threatening embolism Complete bed rest Anticoagulation with heparin in ICU Coumadin anticoagulation for six months Vena caval filter surgery PE prophylaxis
Most common secondary cause of hospital deaths Lower extremity anti-embolism device with compression during surgery are after heart attack or sever illness Low dose heparin during surgery Graduated compression support hose for patients with deep venous insuficiency Pulmonary Disorders
Pulmonary vascular disorders: Pulmonary hypertension Mean pulmonary artery pressure 5 to 10 mm Hg above normal or above 20 mm Hg Primary pulmonary hypertension Idiopathic Diseases of the respiratory system and hypoxemia are more common causes
Pulmonary Disorders Pulmonary vascular disorders: Pulmonary hypertension Classifications: Pulmonary arterial hypertension Pulmonary venous hypertension Pulmonary hypertension due to a respiratory disease or hypoxemia
Pulmonary hypertension due to thrombotic or embolic disease Pulmonary hypertension due to diseases of the pulmonary vasculature Pulmonary Disorders Pulmonary vascular disorders: Cor pulmonale Pulmonary heart disease
Right ventricular enlargement Secondary to pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary hypertension creates chronic pressure overload in the right ventricle Pulmonary Disorders Malignancies of the respiratory tract Lung (bronchogenic)
Most common cause is cigarette smoking Heavy smokers have a 20 times greater chance of developing lung cancer than nonsmokers Smoking is related to cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, esophagus, and urinary bladder Environmental or occupational risk factors are also associated
Lung Tumors Primary malignant lung tumors Most common & highly lethal Bronchogenic carcinoma Develops in mucous membrane of larger bronchi Squamous cell carcinoma Most common
Produces whorled masses of keratin Oat cell carcinoma Small, highly anaplastic cells Metastasizes early Signs of lung tumors
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