Camera angles By Chris Hinkey (cmh209) Standard game camera angle techniques Camera controllers Replay camera angles Dont need to do much if the game is in 2D
When your game is 3D and dynamic is when some problems come in Why we need a good camera system If done right cameras will not be noticed If done wrong everyone will notice the
slightest flaw Jittery cameras are not good for fun game play If you can not see the hero well it is hard to react successfully Having to fix the camera manually as a user is annoying Requirements of a good camera system
Able to change from user input Continuously see a clear view of the desired character. Give special attention to important events Anticipate characters movements as well as possible Have a clear view of the path of the character Problems with doing this
Not able to pre-process the environment Not able to hard code where the camera needs to go Avoid obstacles from being in between the camera and the character Avoiding obstructed view How to do this, pros and cons Raycast collisions
Multi-raycast Attraction points The camera moves to different pre defined points depending on where the character is located Works well for small maps Could possibly cause a jittery camera Doesn't work as well with a dynamic
environment Raycast collisions Cast out one ray from the character to the camera Set the camera from any clear path in between the camera and the character This causes sudden camera movements Some ways around this?
Multi-raycast Send out four rays from the character around where the camera should go Should the camera move away from object? If any of the four rays is hit by an object move away from that object
Should the distance be shortened? If a clear path can be obtained zoom in More on Multi-raycasts Smoothing Used to deal with tunnel situations Use more zooming in to get around obstacles Camera transitions (switching characters)
a function occurs to calculate the new camera position for the new character. Intelligent Camera Control Typical architectures and the problems A better way to build a camera control system Typical camera architectures
Starts with a few monolithic behaviors that only work well for predictable behaviors Then fixes are added for certain cases where the camera is broken This causes a very fragile camera system to code Trade off between fixing a problem and possibly breaking something else This focuses more on the subject not the camera
A better way to do things The camera should be thought of as a primary character Should be based on lightweight behaviors to allow easy design process Easy addition of new behaviors Easy way to switch between these behaviors
How do we do all this Implementation Camera fragment class Simple math processor Camera behavior Updates camera every frame Receives camera location matrix and generates the new camera position
Generalized code that can be reused in many projects Camera Fragment class Three update components position Height with respect to terrain Look at and field view (make sure object is in view)
These are to be preformed in order Implementation continued Camera Controller class An interface between the game and the Camera Fragment class In charge of creation/destroying, ordering, activation and updates to different fragments
Will create fragments and put them in a specified order During each update the controller will cascade through the fragments and generate a new location No way to turn fragments on and off Adding some AI There is some lack of flexibility, lets fix that Rules
Add rules that turn fragments on and off Used within both controller and fragment classes Fuzzy rules would add a level of flexibility (too close, not too far) Works better for systems with fewer fragments Hard to reorder fragments using this technique State Machines Controller class can have a simple Machine
having a rule set to traverse through the states Each state can be a set of fragments that are active Allows easy reordering of fragments Other AI Messaging This is a good way to keep track of game data in the
controller class without using a lot of processing time Used to trigger rule system Scripting Can abstract out code for messaging, switching and ordering Helpful for doing replays Camera angles in replays
Important for sports games Give the player the ability to see some of the minor details of the game Common problems Different styles Problems Player must be entertained continuously Frustration
Accuracy (use better recording schemes ) Poor performance Player must feel in control of the replay Restart, pause, speed control, jump forward and back, and change camera More problems Boredom Have a fast paced interesting replay
This is hard to do because you need to create the replay on the fly A rule based AI system can help in this These rules can be based on film making camera work Different styles Intro Camera Introduces you to the stage and actors
Starts at a distance and then moves toward the subject When it get to the subject circle around the subject Only used at the beginning when everything is stationary First person camera Presents the stage from the subjects point
of view Useful in racing games Important to have a frame of reference on the subject Can be used often but for only short periods of time Follow or Third-person camera Shows part of the scene and the subject
from behind Many variations of this camera from different heights and distances Used as a calming section after an action sequence This camera can be used for up to 50% of the replay Matrix camera
Pauses some or all the action and then circles around the subject This gives a very dramatic effect Should be used when something spectacular is happening Use this camera very sparingly Circle camera Slowly circles the subject while looking at
them Good for a slow portion of the replay Can be used as a transition from side to side of the player Still frame camera As the subject passes, the action is paused at regular intervals simulating photographs
Used in conjunction with photographers on the sidelines Camera switching rules Dont cut to the opposite side of a player it is disorienting Subject should always be in sight Transitions from camera to camera should be fluid
Special cameras (matrix) should be used sparingly Camera Switching rules cont Use follow cameras a lot to serve as breathers between other cameras All cameras should know where to switch to in case they lose sight of the subject Make sure the camera types used are
appropriate for the game type Some good tools Switching the subject of each camera Taking screen shots Stop subject while the rest of the scene continues See and change what camera the current camera is going to switch to
Tools to allow an artist or designer to fine tune the replays Freak Out - Extreme Freeride Snow boarding sports replay Shows examples of the different kinds of cameras http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Axwy2j2E84M
Super Mario Galaxy Good camera implementation A lot of open field areas without many obstacles www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7bN-YhEEtI Legend of Zelda: ocarina of time Boss battle with terrible camera
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