California Jails in the Age of Reform

California Jails in the Age of Reform

PPIC-BSCC Multi-county Study Recent Findings November 2016 Patrick Murphy, Director of Research Ryken Grattet, Sonya Tafoya, Mia Bird, and Viet Nguyen With support from: National Institute for Justice, The California Wellness Foundation, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Russell Sage Foundation Overview Jails Pretrial release (preliminary) Probation (preliminary) Next steps 2 MCS Data Compared to BSCC Jail Profile Survey 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 ADP JPS 30,000 ADP MCS Counties 20,000 10,000 One year after realignment O c 2 t, 0 1 01 D e 2 c, 1 01 F ,2 eb 01 2 Ap 2 r, 01 2 J ,2 un 01 2 Au 2 g, 01 2 O

,2 ct Prop 47 14 15 15 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 12 13 13 14 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , r r r b g b g b g n n n ct ct ct ec ec ec Ap Ap Ap Ju O Ju O Ju O Fe Au Fe Au Fe Au D D D

2 01 Grattet, Tafoya, Bird, & Nguyen. 2016. California Jails in the Era of Reform. 3 Realignment and Prop 47 Primarily Affect Drug and Property Offenders Persons ADP Property ADP Drugs ADP 16,000 14,000 JAIL ADP 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 One year after realignment 0 O ct 0 ,2 11 D , ec 11 20 Fe b, 12 20 r Ap 0 ,2 12 Ju n 0 ,2 12 g Au , 12 20 O ct 0 ,2 12 D ec , 12 20 Fe b 0 ,2 13 r

Ap 0 ,2 13 Ju n 0 ,2 13 g Au 0 ,2 13 O ct 0 ,2 13 D ec , 13 20 Fe b 0 ,2 14 r Ap 0 ,2 14 Ju n 0 ,2 14 g Au 0 ,2 14 O ct 0 ,2 14 Prop 47 5 5 5 5 4 5 01 01 01 01 01 01 2 2 2 2 2

2 , , r, b, n, g, ct ec Ap Ju O Fe Au D Grattet, Tafoya, Bird, & Nguyen. 2016. California Jails in the Era of Reform. 4 Prop 47 Changed Booking Patterns 40493 Drug Possession 11906 22119 Theft 15567 3171 Nov, 2014 - October, 2015 Other Property Nov, 2013 - October, 2014 1854 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 Bird, Tafoya, Grattet, & Nguyen. 2016. The Impact of Prop 47 on Jail Use. 5 Lengths of Stay decreased under Realignment (in days) Pre-realignment Under realignment Under Prop 47 Oct-11 Oct-12 Oct-13 Oct-14 Oct-15 Drug 21 13 11 11 16 Property 13

7 6 6 15 Person 18 14 10 12 18 Drug 45 46 58 73 98 Property 66 84 88 71 89 Person 90 76 85 85 84 Misdemeanors Felonies Grattet, Tafoya, Bird, & Nguyen. 2016. California Jails in the Era of Reform. 6 Release practices change under different reforms Alternative Custody Exit Pretrial Release Exit 16,000 Capacity Release Exit 14,000 12,000 10,000 One year after realignment Prop 47 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 O ,2 ct 01 1 D

e 2 c, 1 01 Fe 2 b, 01 2 Ap 2 r, 01 2 Ju 2 n, 01 2 Au 2 g, 2 01 O ,2 ct 01 2 D e 2 c, 2 01 Fe 2 b, 3 01 Ap 2 r, 01 3 Ju 2 n, 01 3 Au 2 g, 01 3 O ,2 ct 01 3

D e 2 c, 3 01 Fe 2 b, 4 01 4 14 15 14 14 15 15 15 15 14 01 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 ,r 2 , , , , , , , , , r g g n b n ct ct ec Ap Ap Ju O Ju O Au Fe Au D Grattet, Tafoya, Bird, & Nguyen. 2016. California Jails in the Era of Reform. 7 Risk Classifications Differ Between PRCS and Parolees, 2011-15 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% PRCS Low Moderate Parolees High Drug High Property High Person Missing Unpublished preliminary data.

8 Number of Bookings One-year return to jail custody for all people under probation supervision have been consistent 5+ 2% 2% 2% 4 2% 2% 2% October 2011 - September 2012 October 2012 - September 2013 4% 4% 4% 3 October 2013 - September 2014 10% 10% 9% 2 24% 23% 23% 1 60% 60% 60% 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Unpublished preliminary data. 9 Together parolees and probationers comprised nearly 30 percent of jail beds 0.9 0.8 0.7 Portion of ADP 0.6 Non Supervised Distribution 0.5 Flash Distribution Probation Distribution 0.4 Parole Distribution 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 O ,2 ct

01 1 D e 2 c, 1 01 Fe 2 b, 01 2 r, Ap 20 12 Ju 2 n, 01 2 Au 2 g, 01 2 O , ct 20 12 D e 2 c, 2 01 Fe 2 b, 01 3 r, Ap 20 13 Ju 2 n, 01 3 Au 2 g, 3 01 O ,2 ct 01

3 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 , , , , , , , , , , , , t t r r b n g b n g c c ec ec Ap Ap Ju O Ju O Fe Au Fe Au D D Unpublished preliminary data. 10 Next steps Expanded scope of data collection to include services, sanctions, programs County dashboards Jail population forecasting tools and jail policy planning tool Transfer to BSCC in 2017-8, research and county access PPIC reports Recidivism Pretrial Probation Populations 11

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