Building Assessment

Building Assessment

WEATHERIZATION ENERGY AUDITOR SINGLE FAMILY Building Assessment WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 1 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Learning Objectives BUILDING ASSESSMENT By attending this session, participants will be able to: Explain how to do a building assessment. Describe the role clients play in helping the auditor determine health, safety, and energy needs. List the components of an accurate visual assessment. Recognize the importance of documenting moisture, electrical, and health and safety problems. Determine the components of the thermal boundary. 2 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012

eere.energy.gov Client Interview #1 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Assessment begins with meeting and interviewing the client. Follow the ground rules of showing respect, honesty, and understanding. Making the client part of the auditing process often yields very important clues about: o Health and Safety o Comfort o Energy Efficiency 3 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy eere.energy.gov

Client Interview #2 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Use the interview process to learn more about how the home works: How many people live in the home? Are there cold rooms? Hot rooms? Do they use window shades to control solar heat gain? Are certain parts of the house ever closed off for temperature control? What temperature is the thermostat typically set to? Do they use the fireplace or unvented space heaters? What are the fuel bills? Ask the client about issues related to health and safety: Does anyone in the home have asthma? Are headaches a chronic problem in the heating season? 4 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Client Interview #3 BUILDING ASSESSMENT

Explain the audit process and discuss retrofit options. Air leakage testing Health and safety assessment Heating and cooling assessment Base load analysis Existing conditions that may effect the building integrity or their own health and safety How the home and their lives will be improved through weatherization 5 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Exterior Walk Around Process BUILDING ASSESSMENT Start Photos courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 6 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012

eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Exterior #1 BUILDING ASSESSMENT No gutters Steel roof Land slopes to building Photos courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy Chimneys meet code height requirements Attached Garage Clapboard siding in good condition No storm

doors All windows are double-pane 7 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 Window below ground eere.energy.gov The Footprint Sketch BUILDING ASSESSMENT 15 16 8 Den Shed Kitchen

N 12 Bath Garage 16 12 Living BR Open Porch Hall 26 BR BR

= heated = no heat 7 cellar under main house Second Floor Den & kitchen floor 1 clearance to ground 8 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Elevations BUILDING ASSESSMENT Main house: 16 x 26 1 story Photos courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy Ell:

12 x 15 1 story Rear addition: 8 x 16 1 story Cellar under main house only SW Elevation All on very good rubble stone foundation. NE Elevation 7 Heated space windows and doors: (8) 12.5 sq windows (8) 10 sq windows (2) 20 sq doors 76

8 75 Second floor: Attic flat = 8 Slopes = 8 Eaves wall = 3 9 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Exterior #2 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Whats wrong with this picture? Photo courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center 10 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov

Visual Assessment Exterior #3 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Abundance of peeling paint could indicate a high moisture load. Investigate. Photo courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center 11 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Exterior #4 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Driveway back A Driveway slopes back A disconnected

disconnected downspout downspout Waterslopes Mismanagement into causes into foundation, foundation, carrying carrying causes water water to to pour pour down down moisture walls moisture there. there. walls during during weather weather events. events.

Photos courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center Basement moisture problems may be traced back to poor exterior drainage. 12 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Exterior #5 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Photos courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy Note foundation type and percent above grade. Note numbers of windows, types and exterior condition. 13 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov

Visual Assessment Exterior #6 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Porch roof cavity may be open to wall cavities. Arrows Arrows indicate indicate air air escaping escaping from from back back of of porch porch roof roof to to adjoining adjoining wall wall cavities. cavities. Photos courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy

14 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Exterior Visual Assessment Review BUILDING ASSESSMENT Note and include detail on: Building type and framing. Foundation type and percent above grade. Additions, porches, attached or tuck-under garages, cantilevers. Numbers, types, condition, and orientation of windows and doors. Cardinal direction and orientation. Siding type and condition. Chimneys, exhaust vents, and

possible safety problems. Roof type, covering, and condition. Water management issues (downspouts, flashing, grade, etc.). Draw a sketch of the building footprint and sides, noting dimensions. Remember to note comfort, health and safety, and any other issues discovered in client interview process. 15 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Conditioned Space BUILDING ASSESSMENT Note and include detail on:

Area and volume of the conditioned space. Pressure and thermal boundaries. Lead-based paint. Mechanical ventilation. Evidence and sources of moisture or indoor air quality problems. Unvented fossil fuel heaters. Identify large air leaks such as broken glass, missing hatchway covers, large penetrations, broken ceilings and wall coverings. Electrical or other hazards to occupants and weatherization workers. Remember to note comfort, health and safety, and any other issues discovered in client interview process.

16 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Conditioned Space BUILDING ASSESSMENT Note the presence, location, and condition of: Wall insulation. Windows and doors. Leakage around outlets and fixtures (using a blower door). Thermostat. Fireplace. Air registers. Window A/C unit. Recessed light fixtures. Stored chemicals that might effect IAQ. Image developed for the U.S. DOE WAP National Standardized

Curriculum 17 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Moisture BUILDING ASSESSMENT Auditors should determine underlying causes of moisture damage. Photos courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy Damaged ceilings may indicate moisture issues. Mold on walls indicates serious moisture issues in the home. Determine underlying causes and mitigate before any air sealing. 18 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012

eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Dropped Ceilings BUILDING ASSESSMENT Look above tiles for hidden air leaks. Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 19 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Access Doors BUILDING ASSESSMENT Check access doors, closets and cabinets for interior leakage paths. This opening within the plumbing wall was discovered

behind an access door. The opening is a major source of air leakage. 20 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Space Heaters BUILDING ASSESSMENT Space Heater Policy No weatherization work is allowed where unvented gas or liquid fuel space heater is primary heat source. Removal of an unvented primary heat source is required, Units that do not meet ANSI Z21.11.2 must be removed

Mobile Home fossil fuel heating systems must be vented to outside Photos courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 21 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Walls BUILDING ASSESSMENT Determine framing type. Determine presence of wall insulation and thickness. Inspect interior wall cladding. Look for areas where insulation may spill. Determine practicality of exterior or interior insulation installation. Calculate the gross wall area. 22 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov

Visual Assessment Framing Type BUILDING ASSESSMENT Determine Type of Wall Framing From the attic, framing style is often evident. Top plates indicate platform framing. Open-topped wall cavities are a sure sign of balloon framing. Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 23 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Insulation BUILDING ASSESSMENT

Probe exterior walls to determine: If insulation is present, what kind and how much? Depth of the wall cavity. Do this in several locations. A A non-conductive non-conductive crochet crochet hook hook is is handy handy for for pulling pulling out out aa sample sample of of existing

existing insulation. insulation. Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 24 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Foundation #1 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Note and include detail on the following: Framing type Insulation levels. Subspace condition Tuck-under garages, coal bins, etc. Thermal boundary

Combustion appliances Moisture and IAQ issues Major air leakage sites Duct system Dryer venting Electrical or other hazards 25 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Foundation BUILDING ASSESSMENT Image developed for the U.S. DOE WAP National Standardized Curriculum 26 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Foundation #3 BUILDING ASSESSMENT

Note major air leakage sites on sketch. Plumbing and wiring penetrations are common air leakage sites. Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 27 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Perimeter BUILDING ASSESSMENT Note ceiling, wall and band joist insulation levels.

Floor joist Band joist This box sill is a common perimeter leakage site in basements. Mud sill Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 28 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Floor BUILDING ASSESSMENT Note type and condition of basement or crawl space floor. Dirt

Radon Floorissues? Basement Vapor retarder? Dirt floor in basement Photo courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center 29 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Foundation #4 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Situations like this can hinder weatherization work. Workers cannot access ducts, floor cavity. Impacts the occupants

health and safety. Wet crawlspace Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 30 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Foundation #5 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Situations like this can hinder weatherization work. Bulk moisture problems must be solved before weatherization work can begin. Wet basement

Photo courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center 31 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Attic Spaces #1 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Dark, hot, unpleasant attics are where some of the most important auditing and installation work takes place. Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 32 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Attic Spaces #2 BUILDING ASSESSMENT

Note and include detail on: Components of the thermal boundary. Physical features (floored, un-floored, condition of ceiling, occupants belongings, attic hatch type). Existing insulation levels. Major air bypasses. Condition and insulation level of duct systems if present. Evidence of condensation-based moisture problems or roof leaks. Attic ventilation. Whether mechanical and plumbing terminations are vented to outside. Knob-and-tube wiring or other electrical hazards. Other hazards such as vermiculite, vermin droppings,

etc. If interior access is not available, attempt to access through an existing exterior vent or, with permission, create an interior access through a closet ceiling if possible. 33 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Attic Spaces #3 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Gable vent B-Vent Pull-down staircase Chimney Floored Attic Ceiling joist cavities Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy

34 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Attic Spaces #4 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Attic bypasses Photos courtesy of NRCERT Major attic bypasses like these should be documented. More materials will be needed than for typical air sealing. 35 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Attic Spaces #5 BUILDING ASSESSMENT

The interior wall cavity acts as a chimney that robs the house of heat and conditioned air. Attic bypasses: Open wall cavities Photo courtesy of NRCERT 36 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Attic Spaces #6 BUILDING ASSESSMENT Check Addition Attics There will likely be large air pathways between the two attics through the open stud bays.

Main attic Addition attic 37 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Electrical BUILDING ASSESSMENT Note the locations of these and any other electrical hazards: Knob and tube wiring Open wire splices Uncovered junction boxes Most

Most state state codes codes prohibit prohibit insulation insulation over over knob-andknob-andtube tube wiring. wiring. Frayed wire, etc. 38 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Attic Ducts BUILDING ASSESSMENT Note the location

and condition of exhaust vents: This This dryer dryer duct, duct, exhausting exhausting into into the the attic attic space, space, is is causing causing moisture moisture issues issues on on the the roof roof deck. deck.

Are they vented directly outside? Smooth, metal vent pipe? Moisture damage around roof penetration? Photo courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center 39 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Visual Assessment Attic Spaces BUILDING ASSESSMENT Storage in attics can hinder weatherization work. Attic

Attic obstructions obstructions and and an an interesting interesting thermal thermal boundary. boundary. Does the client need to remove materials before work begins? Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy 40 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Electrical Assessment BUILDING ASSESSMENT If state or local code allows adding attic insulation over knob

and tube wiring, have a licensed electrician inspect and certify that it is safe. Install type S fuses in the electrical panel. If state or local code allows insulating wall cavities that contain or may contain knob and tube wiring, measure the voltage drop of the applicable circuits under load. A voltage drop over 5% may indicate undersized wiring, improper splices, and other dangerous point loads due to bad connections. Protect fixtures and electrical junctions with code approved covers. 41 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Electrical Assessment Testing BUILDING ASSESSMENT Voltage Drop Testing Reads the percentage of voltage drop on a circuit. A difference above 5% may indicate an unsafe condition.

A qualified technician should investigate potential wiring problems. Photo courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center 42 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Electrical Assessment Wiring BUILDING ASSESSMENT Photos courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center Charring on the light fixture and ceiling is evidence of a degraded wiring connection. Taped and uncovered wiring splices such as these are unsafe and must never be covered with insulation. 43 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012

eere.energy.gov Electrical Assessment Light Fixtures BUILDING ASSESSMENT Photos courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center Provide 3 of air space between recessed lights and insulation or other flammables. A fabricated airtight drywall box meets electrical code requirements and provides a good seal. 44 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Electrical Assessment Fuses BUILDING ASSESSMENT

S-Type Fuses Tamper-proof Blue-15 Blue-15 Amp Amp Fuse Fuse Barbed shell screws into fuse panel Only proper fuse will fit into shell Color-coded Photos courtesy of PA Weatherization Training Center 45 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov Summary

BUILDING ASSESSMENT A successful weatherization project begins with a systematic approach of visual and diagnostic evaluation. Good building assessments begin with a thorough client interview. A successful audit relies on the application of accurate visual assessment and diagnostic procedures. A successful building assessment incorporates all of the knowledge of building systems and the interaction of their components. Auditors must document moisture, electrical, and health and safety problems. Understanding the components of the thermal boundary will help the auditor determine the most cost-effective retrofit strategies. 46 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM December 2012 eere.energy.gov

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