Bosnian Genocide 1992-1995 Background The population of Bosnia was divided into three major groups: Croats (from Croatia) Muslims Serbs (from Serbia)
Tension existed between these three groups In 1992, Bosnia (which was part of Yugoslavia) declared its independence Bosnian Serbs did not want independence Started violently targeting the Croats and Muslims
Where? Located next to Serbia in Eastern Europe- part of Yugoslavia What happened? The genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina was an ethnic cleansing program, or a program designed to get rid of unwanted subgroups
in the population. In Bosnia, these 3 subgroups were the 1.) Bosnians, 2.) Muslims, and 3.) Croats The ethnic cleansing campaign included unlawful confinement, murder, rape, sexual assault, torture, beating, robbery and inhumane treatment of civilians; the targeting of political leaders, intellectuals and
professionals; the unlawful deportation and transfer of civilians; the unlawful shelling of civilians; the unlawful appropriation and plunder of real and personal property; the destruction of homes and businesses; and the destruction of places of worship A concentration camp used for Bosnian Muslims and Croats
Cities like Sarajevo, the capital, were controlled by the Serbs Outcome United Nations never really supported staging an
intervention Sent some humanitarian aid, but not enough Around 100,000 people were killed Serbian President Slobodan
Milosevic was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity as a result of the ethnic cleansing Discovery of a mass grave in Bosnia
Genocide in Rwanda -- 1994 Background Two major tribes in the area Tutsi (minority) Hutu (majority)
The Tutsi had been in power for centuries, but in the 1950s/1960s, the Hutu had come to power through a rebellion Strong history of ethnic tension In 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF -- made up of Tutsis) led a rebellion to defeat the Hutus Started the Rwandan Civil War
Where? South/Central Africa What happened?
The Hutu leader was assassinated in April 1994 This angered the Hutus and led to them starting a genocide against the Tutsis Genocide planned by a group called the Akazu
Tutsis targeted both for being an ethnic minority and being viewed as traitors Ended when the Rwandan Patriotic Front regrouped and defeated Hutu government An orphaned Rwandan child mourns the slaughter of his village
Camp for Tutsi refugees in Zaire Outcome Anywhere from 500,000-1,000,000 killed (thats about 20% of the population!!)
Led to the creation of the International Criminal Court Deals with genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes Mass grave site for the victims of the Rwandan genocide
Genocide in Darfur -- 2003-2010 Background Darfur is a region in Western Sudan History of conflict in the region over oil, scarce resources, religion, and political divisions
In 1989, General Omar Bashir took control of Sudan by military coup which angered many people and increased tensions Rebel groups called Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) formed in 2003 to overthrow the Sudanese government Where?
North/Central Africa What happened? In response to the formation of the SLA and JEM, the Sudanese government ordered Arab militias called the
janjaweed (devils on horseback) to attack any rebels Destroyed over 400 villages in Darfur and started a genocide against civilians Murdered and raped their victims Bashirs government denied any connection to the janjaweed
Unit of the janjaweed Members of the SLA Outcome Anywhere from 180,000-500,000 killed
2,850,000 displaced persons, according to a UN estimate In 2005, the International Criminal Court launched investigations into human rights violations in Darfur. This led to the indictment of President Omar al Bashir in March 2009 for directing a campaign of mass killing, rape, and pillage against civilians in Darfur.
In February 2010, the Sudanese government and the JEM signed a cease-fire. Children from Darfur in refugee camps
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