Bosch Template - SUNY Geneseo

Bosch Template - SUNY Geneseo

Sub Phylum Chelicerata Aquatic Terrestrial Class Merostomata lass Pycnogonida Araneae Class Arachnida

Acari Ticks, mites Scorpiones Eurypterids 450 to 250 mya (water scorpion Largest arthropods ever known (largest nearly 3 m) Many features in common with modern scorpions and horse-shoe crabs

With book gills similar to those in horseshoe crabs Eurypterids 450 to 250 mya Largest arthropods ever known (largest nearly 3 m) Many features in common with modern scorpions and horse-shoe crabs Xiphosura Arachnida Pycnogonida Eurypterida

Water scorpions invaded estuaries, fresh water, and are believed Ancestral to be ancestors of chelicerate arachnids vinegaroon Microwhip scorpion

Spiders Whip scorpions False scorpions True scorpions are also arachnids but distantly related

Permian Arachnids 332 mya With silk producing spigots but lacking spinnerets Segmented whip; links the spiders to whip

scorpions Chelicerata Body Plan Order Araneae as a model Body as anterior prosoma and post. Opisthosoma (abdomen) First anterior segment with no appendages Second segment with clawed chelicerae (or fangs) Other head appendages are pedipalps No mandibles

Internal Morphology of Spiders Circulatory system, respiration Internal view of a book lung showing high surface area for oxygen exchange The eyes are image-forming but simple, not compound Internal Morphology of Spiders Digestive system and excretory system

midgut Pumpin g stomac h mout h Phylogeny of

Arthropoda Nearest relatives? Mono or polyphyletic? Relationships within the group? Cephalocarida (12 spp)

Remipedia (24 spp) 2-4 mm in sediments -10-40 mm in sediments -Blind Blind -Head and trunk No abdominal appendages 2nd antennae behind the mouth? w/42 segments

(as common in embryonic crustacea)Swim upside down On the Phylogeny of Arthropoda A monophyletic lineage of the Ecdysozoa clade Onychophora is the sister group of Arthropoda -Protocerebrum and deutocerebrum also in Onychophora -But tritocerebrum is a unique character of Arthropoda -Position of cerebrums helps establish homology of segments and segmental appendages

Arthropod Phylogeny Mandibulata and AtelocerataMandibulata and PanCrustacea Chelicerata Crustacea Myriapoda Chelicerata Myriapoda Crustacea

Hexapoda Hexapoda Homology of mandible widely accepted. Is possession of uniramous appendages and a single pair of antennae {Atelocerata = without back horns (or antennae)} a shared derived character? Mandibles Multiramous appendages

Atelocerata-Uniramia Arthropod Phylogeny Mandibulata and AtelocerataMandibulata and PanCrustacea Chelicerata Crustacea Myriapoda Chelicerata Myriapoda

Crustacea Hexapoda Hexapoda Homology of mandible widely accepted. Is possession of uniramous appendages and a single pair of antennae {Atelocerata = without back horns (or antennae)} a shared derived character? - Insect fossils found with polyramous appendages - Land Crustacea w/single pair of antennae & uniramous

append. - Buds of second antennae in insect development - Buds of abdominal appendages in insect development Mandibles Multiramous appendages Atelocerata-Uniramia Letter Nature 463, 1079-1083 (25 February 2010) Arthropod relationships revealed by

phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences Mandibulata Chelicerata? Myriapoda? Pancrustacea? Inferences: Mandibulata? Myriapoda? Hexapoda? Entognatha?

Insecta? Crustacea? - Homologous Compound eyes indicated by protein genetic sequence analysis; evolved in the common ancestor of panCrustacea - Hemocyanins present in malacostracans also known in cockroaches and grasshopper embryos - JH and Methyl farnesoate productionhormones involved in molting and growth, utilize many of the same enzymes - Have the same set of micro RNAs

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