BLOCK REVIEW For Tomorrow Bring pens and pencils to exam Bring watch to guarantee you can time yourself 1 hour for 75 multiple choice 75 minutes (1hour, 15 minutes) for 3 CRQs
Get plenty of sleep tonight Eat breakfast tomorrow morning and eat lunch 4th period tomorrow (tell your teacher you have to) Report to library at 11:30 Test Taking Advice
READ CAREFULLY For multiple choice, cross out answers that dont make sense If a question is taking you too long to answer, take a quick guess and make a mark next to it You can come back to question if you have time
For CRQ, jot down discussion points and examples that you will discuss next to each question Try to include APHG vocabulary and concepts wherever you can Answer the question you feel most confident on first PACE YOURSELF Demographic Transition
Model Apply to DTM Epidemiologic Transition Zelinsky Model of Migration Transition Population Growth J-Curve (exponential growth)
S-Curve (varying growth) 8. Gravity Model (bottom) Effect of distance on interaction (inverse) 1) larger places attract people, ideas, and commodities more than smaller places, 2) places closer together have a greater attraction 3) world class cities will have a high relationship even though the distance is far
(e.g. New York City and Tokyo) Self-Sufficiency Spread investment
evenly across country Eliminate foreign competition (tariffs, quotas) Encourage independence from MDCs International Trade
Focus on developing one asset that other countries want (resource, manufacturing, tourism) Dependent on other
countries Examples: Rostows Model (Asian Tigers, Petroleum Producers) Instead of just focusing on industries in your own country, you focus on unique asset that you could provide to other countries. You then work on developing that industry.
ROSTOW Increasing Development Structural adjustment programs: outline goals for increasing development (sometimes this involves too many cuts in spending) Organizations that finance development
World Bank and International Monetary Fund Foreign Direct Investment (Trans-national corporations invest a country) Problem is this investment is uneven Headquarters in MDCs WTO (World Trade Organization Von Thunen
Commercial agriculture only Analyzes where to locate various agricultural activities based on land costs and transportation costs (land use model) Activities that are intensive locate near center Land is expensive but transportation cost is low Higher population density
Market gardening and dairy (perishable, heavy) Activities that are extensive locate in outer rings Land is cheap, but transportation cost is high Lower population density Grains and livestock ranching Von Thunen
Weber Least cost theory based on situation factors
Analyzes where to locate factory in relation to raw materials and market; based on transportation costs Transportation costs determined by bulk-gaining or bulk-reducing Bulk-gaining (locate near market) Bulk-reducing (locate near raw materials) Today, labor costs (site factors) are becoming more important therefore this theory is becoming somewhat outdated
RM 1 RM = Raw Materials P = Production Point M = Market RM 2 P bulkBULK
reducing orGAINING bulk gaining? M RM 1 P RM 2
RM = Raw Materials P = Production Point M = Market bulkBULK reducing orREDUCIN bulk gaining? G M
Concentric Zone Theory Sector Model Multiple Nuclei Model Peripheral Model U.S. CENTER OF POPULATION
Borcherts Model of Urban Evolution (Growth of U.S. cities) = Industrial Cities Along Railroads (Detroit, Chicago, Pittsburgh) = Modern Cities Along Roads (suburbs) Central Place Theory
Contemporary Tools GIS (geographic information system): computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data Stores
information in layers Contemporary Tools
GPS (Global Positioning System): accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth U.S.: 2 dozen satellites placed in predetermined orbits Example of remote sensing (gathering of info about Earth from
satellite) More Vocabulary Smart growth Better city planning to limit urban sprawl Just-in-time delivery
Schedule deliveries just before they are needed to save warehouse storage space Edge city Functions like a CBD (commercial, shopping, offices, entertainment) but in the suburbs
Transhumance Seasonal migration between lowlands and highlands; practiced by pastoral nomads Green Revolution Why?
Methods? Key crops? Where in the world effective? Where in the world limited?
Labor intensive for agriculture Small amount of land, huge amount of labor Labor intensive for industry High percent of costs are labor e.g. textiles Coal, iron ore
Natural gas Note that Japan lacks natural resources Renewable vs. Nonrenewable
Renewable: can be used again Hydroelectric, solar, nuclear, wind, biomass, geothermal Nonrenewable: do not replenish themselves Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, coal) Causes acid rain Causes global warming
U.S. is leading consumer of fossil fuels Creates resource crisis Greenhouse effect: increase in Earths temperature Proven reserves (known) Potential reserves (possibly) Renewable vs. Nonrenewable
Tragedy of the commons: humans will do whats best for them, despite what is best for public good Debt for nature swap: forgiveness of debts in exchange for the setting aside of land for conservation or preservation Extractive industries: find most efficient way to remove resources from earth with minimal disruption to the natural environment
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