Battle of Wounded Knee -

Battle of Wounded Knee -

1890 - 1945 Battle of Wounded Knee * Sioux natives wished to practice a dance that they believed would free their lands, and rid of whites, and lead to prosperity; this frightened

white settlers * The federal army believed Chief Sitting Bull was planning a rebellion; acting on the settlers fear and their suspicions, the army captured the chief * In a sudden exchange of gunfire between the tribe and the army, Chief Sitting Bull and the

others were killed; the remainder of tribe fled to a camp near Wounded Knee Creek * When the army reached this camp, a shot was fired , and in reaction, the army killed two hundred men, women , and children in what is considered the last battle of the Indian Wars

Progressivism Social, Political and economic reform that came as an American Response to problems caused by industrialization, urbanization and immigration Democratic reforms were made throughout

states and the national government Reforms helped development the 16, 17, 19 Amendments Woodrow Wilson 28th President

Before presidency and political work, he served as an academic and President of Princeton University His legislation lowered tariffs, created a graduated federal trade commission to control unfair business practices Initiated progressive reform that prohibited child labor and limited railroad workers to an eight hour day Led United States into WW 1

His 14 points outlined the settlement of WW1 He was a noted racist who segregated the federal government and praised the Birth of a Nation , a controversial movie negatively depicting AfricanAmericans Platt Amendment

Rider attached to army appropriations bill It was written into the constitution of Cuba by the United States and, in effect, made Cuba a United States protectorate The United States kept land for naval bases on Cuba: Guantanamo Bay would play a part in later Cuba- United States conflicts

Theodore Roosevelt 26th president Roosevelt had to deal with ill health and became an advocate for similarly disadvantaged people Roosevelt was part of the Rough Rider Regiment during the

Spanish- American conflict, where he became a war hero As president, he became a Trust Buster; he used the Sherman Antitrust Act to dissolve trusts that restrained interstate and foreign trade Won the antitrust case against the Northern Securities Company Style of diplomacy was to speak softly and carry a big stick; protected United States interests by ensuring the construction of the

Panama Canal and United States authority in Latin America Served as a middleman in conflicts between Russia and Japan; forged Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 Supported conservation ( on preservation ) of national resources Muckrakers

American Journalist, novelists, and critics who exposed corruptions, especially in business and politics President Theodore Roosevelt is said to have given the muckrakers their name Famous muckrakers included Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, and Samuel Hopkins

Adams Led to increased support for the progressive movement Sherman antitrust act Based on Congresss power to regulate interstate

commerce Declare every contract, combination, or conspiracy in restraint of interstate trade to be illegal Corporate monopolies were exposed to federal prosecution if found to conspire in restraining trade

The supreme court applied the at to both labor unions and corporations Insular Cases A series of court cases held to determine if the Constitution followed the flag.

At stake- whether people in areas controlled by the United States were given rights as citizens The court determined that those living in new territories were not automatically granted the right of the United States citizens

Populist Party Consisted mostly of farmers Members who met in Nebraska wrote their Omaha Platform. The demands of the platform included free and

unlimited coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, and government and ownership of the telephone, telegraph, and railroad industries Many of these ideas were later adopted by the Progressive party. Federal Reserve Act if 1913

Response to the Panic of 1907 and concerns of business Need for a stable currency supply that could grown and shrink with business demands Several measures competed for designing this central reserve, each offering control to a different group President Wilson worked diligently to create and secure

passage of the act Divided the nation into separate regions with federal reserve banks in each that would serve as banker banks. The Federal Reserve Board oversaw the system and regulated it by raising or lowering the interests rates that each federal reserve bank could charge.

Watchful Waiting Policy by Woodrow Wilson of rejecting alliances with leaders who took control through force until a determination of their interests could be made

Wilson implemented this policy by refusing to accept the leadership of Victoriano Hureta when he took control of Mexico through violent revolution. Policy ended when the United States sent forces to retaliate against Mexico, which had arrested American sailors in its borders.

Homestead Strike Iron and steel workers strike against Carnegie Steel Company in Pittsburgh to protest slavery reductions Henry Clay Frick hired Pinkerton security

guards to protect Carnegies plant, but fighting began and several deaths resulted on both sides. Pennsylvania state militia was brought in to take control Clayton Antitrust Act

Further outlined regulations against monopolies and other unfair business practices. Meant as update for the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 Price discrimination that was destructive to competition was declared illegal

Est. Federal Trade Commission to investigate and prosecute instances to unfair competition. Served as the grounds for many suit against corporations Exempted labor unions engaged in legal activities Hoovervilles

Term used to describe makeshift shacks that housed groups of homeless people Used in open areas near cities during the depression This term was sued to mock Herbert Hoover

Upton Sinclair Novelist and socialist Used his writing to expose issues in the United States society, such as the need for food inspection laws, and the oppressive effect of capitalism on education and culture

His book , The Jungle (1906) , a graphic novel about the Chicago stockyards, led to food inspection reforms and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 Lost bid to become governor of California in 1934 Won Pulitzer prize in 1942

Muller v. Oregon Oregon established a law that limited women to ten hours of work in factories and laundries Muller, a laundry owner, challenged the legality of the law, arguing that it violated the Liberty to contract.

Louis Btandeis, one of the attorneys arguing the case, used extensive sociological evidence in his brief ( the Brandeis Brief). Which served as a model for later social reformers The supreme court held that the law was constitutional

Henry Ford His model T, introduced in 1908, was the first inexpensive, mass- produced automobile Use of the moving assembly line strongly influenced America manufacturing

Eugene v. Debs Became president of American Railway Union in 1893 Led successful strikes against the Great Northern Railway and against the Pullman Palace Car Company

Was a founder of the Social Democratic Party Ran for president was a socialist candidate five times between 1900 and 1920 Hawaii American sugar planters worked in Hawaii and

expanded America- Hawaiian sugar trade Queen Liliuokalani opposed foreigners, alienating Americans Revolution against the queen came about in 1893 wand was encouraged by American Leaders Feeling that most islanders did not support this revolution , Grover Cleveland unsuccessfully attempted

to restore Queen Liliuokalani Standford Dole, son of American missionaries in Hawaii, shepherded the annexation process Dole became Hawaiis frist governor when the United states annexed it on July 7, 1898 William Howard Taft

27th president After serving as the Secretary of War under Theodore Roosevelt , he elected over William Jennings Bryan Prosecuted trusts under the Sherman Antitrust Act His policy of Dollar Diplomacy called for acting in foreign affairs to achieve a financial result on behalf

of one's country. His administration created the department of labor and established the parcel post system President Roosevelts relationship with Taft deteriorated, leading to Roosevelt's;s opposition of Tafts re- election Became Chief Justice of Supreme court after serving as

president 17th Amendment A progressive initiative that allowed for each state to elect two senators for 6 yr terms by popular vote

Restated the first paragraph of article 1, section 3 of the constitution by replacing chosen By legislature thereof with elected by the people thereof Allowed citizens to have a more active participation in government

Bureau of Indian Affairs Led by commissioner John Collier Returned ownership of certain lands to tribes, established tribal governments, and provided economic relief Created a program of work projects for

reservations Watchful waiting Policy by Woodrow Wilson of rejecting alliances with leaders who took control through force until a determination of their

interests could be made Wilson implemented this policy by refusing to accept the leadership of Victoriano Huerta when he took control of Mexico through violent revolution Policy ended when the United States sent forces to retaliate against Mexico, which

had arrested American Sailors in its borders Teller Amendment The Amendment promised that when the United States overthrew Spanish rule in Cuba, the United States would give Cubans their independence

Later, the Platt Amendment would override the Teller Amendment as Cuba would come under United States control after the Spanish- American War Puerto Rico and the United States

In 1900, congress passed the Foraker Act, which gave Puerto Rico , which gave Puerto Rico limited popular government In 1917, American citizenship was granted to Puerto Ricans FDRs Good neighbor Policy

Foreign policy doctrine adopted by FDR for the United States Withdrew marines from Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and other areas American stayed out of the Cuban revolution American settled with Mexico on American

properties in that country First New Deal First phase of FDRs domestic reform program Aimed to provide recovery and relief through public works, business and agricultural regulation ,stabilizing

prices Organizations such as the agricultural adjustment administration, federal deposit insurance corporation, civilian conservation corps, and national recovery administration were founded Economy improved to a degree as unemployment decreased

Criticized by conservations for going too far in the use of deficit spending and spending on relief Attacked by liberals for being in favor of business First new deal creations Civilian Conservation Corp (1933) provided

work for young men through projects such as road construction and flood control National industrial recovery act (1933) created national recovery administration, which prepared codes for fair competition Public works administration (1933) constructed road, schools, damns, bridges and other projects

to aid the economy through increasing jobs Agricultural adjustment act (1933) encouraged farmers to decrease their production, thereby increasing their profits Dust Bowl

Areas of American prairie states that experienced ecological damage due to huge clouds of soil Mismanagement of grazing land and severe winds swept unprotected soil into dust storms Led to both economic and health hardships for many

Romanticism A belief in the innate goodness of a man, nature, and traditional values, rooted in turn- of the- century- Europe Emphasized emotions and feelings over rationally

Reaction against the excesses of the Enlightenment led to a growing push for social reform William Mckinley 25th president

Former Republican congressman from Ohio Business rallied to his support against William Jennings Bryan While Bryan toured the country, McKinley stayed at home and hosted important visitors, building an honest, Presidential image. Defeated William Jennings Bryan for office in 1896

McKinleys election over Bryan influenced future political races by setting up interest groups and alliances that lasted for over a decade McKinley re- elected in 1900; Leon- Czolgosz, an anarchist, assassinated McKinley one year into his second term Marcus Alonzo Hanna

American capitalist dealing in coal, shipping, shipbuilding, banking and newspapers He was active in Ohio Republican Party, having William McKinley elected governor in 1891 and 1893

As chairman of the Republican National Committee , he helped McKinley win the presidential election of 1896 Transcendentalism Movement to transcend the bounds of the

intellect and to strive for emotional unity with God Capable of unity without the help of the institutional church Saw church as reactionary and stifling selfexpression Banking Failures

Banks were unable to collect on loans because of the Great Depression Banks could not return money to depositors, leading to bank closures On March 5, 1933, FDR reacted by closing all banks and instituting the Emergency

Banking Act, which gave him the power to reorganize insolvent national banks The hundred days President Roosevelt called a special session of Congress to deal with the weak american

Banking system Congress passed an emergency act on banking and continued the session to deal with unemployment and falling farm prices This special session became known as the Hundred Days. This session launched the first new deal

Fireside Chats Franklin D. Roosevelts method of addressing the nation through radio Created assurance among the public in the strength of the banks he was opening

Led to people depositing money again Washington Irving In his time, he was the best-known native writer in the United States and one of the first American writers to gain fame throughout Europe.

His satire is considered some of the first great comic literature written by an American. Stories included Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleep Hollow ( both in 1820) His writing reflected an increasing American nationalism, as the stories were based in American settings.

Hawley- Smoot Tariff Brought tariff to the highest level in its history. In retaliation , foreign countries set tariffs on American goods, creating a decline in exports and further deepening the economic depression

This was another expression of isolationism Eleanor Roosevelt Wife of FDR Strong supporter of civil rights, womens rights, and world peace

Resigned from Daughters of the American Revolution after they refused to allow Marian Anderson, an African- American, to sing at Independence Hall Served as delegate to the United Nations from 1945-1953

Radio First human voice was broadcast in 1906 and first musical broadcast was in 1910 Woodrow Wilson was the first president to broadcast KDKA was first radio station in the United States

(Pittsburgh), commencing broadcast in 1920 Broke down regionalism and provided news and entertainment The Great Migration The movement of African- Americans from the South to the

industrial centers of the Northeast and the Midwest Causes for the migration included decreased cotton prices, the lack of immigrant workers in the North, increased manufacturing as a result of the war, and a growth of the KKK The African- American population in such cities as Detroit, Chicago , and New York grew during this period The migration led to higher wages , more educational

opportunities , and better standers of life for many AfricanAmericas Ashcan School (New York Realists) Group of artists who painted realistic scenes Focused on subjects of everyday life, titles such as The Wrestlers and Sixth Avenue

Members included George Luks, George Bellows, John Sloan, Henri, Everett Shinn, and Arthur B. Davies Frederick Winslow Taylor Created the basic for the scientific management

of business in a quest for efficiency Used shops and large plants as models and succeed in spreading his ideas on efficiency to several industries Wrote books on the subject of scientific management

The Bonus Army A group of 14,000 unemployed veterans that marched on Washington They sought payment of money through congress Hoover had the senate kill the bill providing additional payment, and half of the veterans took

the offer of transportation home. The remaining vets subsisted in shacks near the Anacostia River to draw attention to their cause Hoover called in Army and had the remainder of the vets removed from Washington Created the impression that Hoover did not care about the plight of the poor

Hoover- Stimson Doctrine Henry L. Stimson, secretary of state under Hoover, sent identical notes to China and Japan , which became known as the Hoover- Stimson Doctrine

The notes were a reaction to Japans movement into Manchuria They stated that the United States would not would not recognize any treaty or agreement that would impair Chinas territory, United States rights in China, the political situation in China, the political situation , or the open door policy

McCulloch v. Maryland Marshall Court Decision Determination that no state can control an agency of the federal government Maryland tried to levy a tax on a local branch of

the United States Bank to protect its own banks Supreme court determination such state action violated Congresss implied powers to operate a national bank Use of judicial review over state law made this a division of powers case

Muscle Shoals and the Tennessee Valley Authority Muscle Shoals was the location of a dam and two nitrate plants built by the government during World War one President Coolidge vetoed Senates plan to lease the property to private sector Facility became the center of the Tennessee Valley Authority in

1933. Giving FDR a chance to do his first large- scale experiment in regional planning TVA built a series of dams to provide electricity and flood control Dams gave economic and environmental boosts to an area in need of rehabilitation

Second new deal Like the First New Deal, it offered sweeping economic changes to aid in relief and recovery While the First New Deal emphasized central planning's, the second New Deal pushed programs to aid particular groups such as labor

organization The United States tax structure was finessed through carious revenue acts Some new deal acts were declared unconstitutional in 1935 National Industrial Recovery Act

NIRA law was passed on the last day of the Hundred Days as the pillar of Roosevelts assistance program Goal of NIRA was to help business self-regulate , aiding employment NIRA created the National Recovery Administration, which oversaw the creation of fair competition codes

NRA codes abolished child labor, created minimum wagesm and capped hours for workers In Schecter V. United States 1935), the Supreme Court overturned the National Industrial Recovery Act holding that it granted the president too much leeway and that these powers should be in the hands of the states

Cross of gold speech Address given by William Jennings Bryan, the democatic presidential nominee, during the national convention of the Democratic Party The speech criticized the gold standard and

supported the coinage of silver Bryans beliefs were popular with debt- ridden farmers The last words of his speech, and the most famous , were You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.

W.E.B. DuBois Civil Rights leader and author Called for full equality of African- Americans, which included social, civil, political, and economic equality.

Opposed Booker T. Washingtons gradual approach to equality Through higher education , DuBois wanted to develop leaders from the most able 10 percent of African Americans ( The talented Tenth) Co- Founded the Niagara Movement, which became the National Association for the

Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Share Our Wealth Society Group founded by Louisiana Senator Huey Kingfish long Long, a populist, criticized FDR for not doing

more to help those on the lower end of the scale Proposed radical taxation plans on wealthy to make every man a king When Long was assassinated, the society lost its drive Indian Reorganization Act

Reversed Dawes Severalty Act Attempted to restore the tribal basis of Native American Life Tribal life was to be recognized as normal FDRs Banking Acts, the Gold Standard , and

the SEC The Emergency Banking Relief Act was the first act of FDRs Hundred Days, it provided funds to open some banks and it combined and liquidated others Glass- Steagall Banking Act insured deposited in commercial banks, created the FDIC, and separated

commercial and investment banking to reduce risk FDR removed gold from circulation, resulting devaluation of the dollar helped raise prices and assisted the United States exports The securities and exchange commission was created as a watchdog for the stock exchange and securities

FDR 32nd president With the slogan the only thing we have to fear itself, encouraged new hope for emerging from the Great Depression At age 39, he contracted poliomyelitis, he regained use

of his legs through a vigorous exercise program Led congress through hundred days Focused on economic and agricultural recovery and support for the unemployed and elderly attempted to enlarge the supreme court and put it place justices that would support his legislation, but he failed Mobilized the united states for entry into WW11

The influence of Sea Power upon history, 1660-1783 Written by Alfred Thayer Mahan a naval officer and historian Further encouraged those in favor of

American imperialism and seaward expansion Themes in the book were used as partial justification for the United States taking of the Philippines

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