Basic Probability Concepts Dr Mona Hassan Ahmed Hassan Prof of Biostatistics High Institute of Public Health Alexandria, Egypt Introduction People use the term probability many times each day.
For example, physician says that a patient has a 50-50 chance of surviving a certain operation. Another physician may say that she is 95% certain that a patient has a particular disease Definition If an event can occur in N mutually exclusive and equally likely ways, and if m of these possess a trait, E, the probability of the occurrence of E is read as P(E) = m/N
Definition Experiment ==> any planned process of data collection. It consists of a number of trials (replications) under the same condition. Definition Sample space: collection of unique, non-overlapping possible outcomes of a random circumstance. Simple event: one outcome in the sample space; a possible outcome of a random circumstance. Event: a collection of one or more simple events in the sample space; often written as A, B, C, and so on
Male, Female Definition Complement ==> sometimes, we want to know the probability that an event will not happen; an event opposite to the event of interest is called a complementary event. If A is an event, its complement is The probability of the complement is AC or A Example: The complement of male event is the female P(A) + P(AC) = 1 Views of Probability: 1-Subjective:
It is an estimate that reflects a persons opinion, or best guess about whether an outcome will occur. Important in medicine form the basis of a physicians opinion (based on information gained in the history and physical examination) about whether a patient has a specific disease. Such estimate can be changed with the results of diagnostic procedures. 2- Objective Classical It is well known that the probability of flipping a fair coin and getting a tail is 0.50. If a coin is flipped 10 times, is there a
guarantee, that exactly 5 tails will be observed If the coin is flipped 100 times? With 1000 flips? As the number of flips becomes larger, the proportion of coin flips that result in tails approaches 0.50 Example: Probability of Male versus Female Births Long-run relative frequency of males born in KSA is about 0.512 (512 boys born per 1000 births) Table provides results of simulation: the proportion is far
from .512 over the first few weeks but in the long run settles down around .512. 2- Objective Relative frequency Assuming that an experiment can be repeated many times and assuming that there are one or more outcomes that can result from each repetition. Then, the probability of a given outcome is the number of times that outcome occurs divided by the total number of repetitions. Problem 1. Blood
Group Males Females Total O A B AB 20 17
8 5 20 18 7 5 40 35 15 10 Total
50 50 100 Problem 2. An outbreak of food poisoning occurs in a group of students who attended a party Ill Not Ill Total
Ate Barbecue Did Not Eat Barbecue 90 20 30 60 120 80 Total 110
90 200 Marginal probabilities Named so because they appear on the margins of a probability table. It is probability of single outcome Example: In problem 1, P(Male), P(Blood group A) P(Male) = number of males/total number of subjects = 50/100
= 0.5 Conditional probabilities It is the probability of an event on condition that certain criteria is satisfied Example: If a subject was selected randomly and found to be female what is the probability that she has a blood group O Here the total possible outcomes constitute a subset (females) of the total number of subjects. This probability is termed probability of O given F P(O\F) = 20/50 = 0.40 Joint probability
It is the probability of occurrence of two or more events together Example: Probability of being male & belong to blood group AB P(M and AB) = P(MAB) = 5/100 = 0.05 = intersection Properties The probability ranges between 0 and 1 If an outcome cannot occur, its probability is 0 If an outcome is sure, it has a
probability of 1 The sum of probabilities of mutually exclusive outcomes is equal to 1 P(M) + P(F) = 1 Rules of probability 1- Multiplication rule Independence and multiplication rule P(A and B) = P(A) P(B) P(A) P(B\A)
P(B) A and B are independent P(B\A) = P(B) Example: The joint probability of being male and having blood type O To know that two events are independent compute the marginal and conditional probabilities of one of them if they are equal the two events are independent. If not equal the two events are dependent P(O) = 40/100 = 0.40
P(O\M) = 20/50 = 0.40 Then the two events are independent P(OM) = P(O)P(M) = (40/100)(50/100) = 0.20 Rules of probability 1- Multiplication rule Dependence and the modified multiplication rule P(A and B) = P(A) P(B\A) P(A)
P(B) P(B\A) P(B\A) A and B are not independent P(B\A) P(B) Example: The joint probability of being ill and eat barbecue P(Ill) = 110/200 = 0.55
P(Ill\Eat B) = 90/120 = 0.75 Then the two events are dependent P(IllEat B) = P(Eat B)P(Ill\Eat B) = (120/200)(90/120) = 0.45 Rules of probability 2- Addition rule A and B are mutually exclusive The occurrence of one event precludes the occurrence of the other
Addition Rule P(A) P(B) P(A OR B) = P(A U B) = P(A) + P(B) Example: The probability of being either blood type O or blood type A P(OUA) = P(O) + P(A) = (40/100)+(35/100)
= 0.75 A and B are non mutually exclusive (Can occur together) Example: Male and smoker Mo d Ad d P(A) P(B)
Ru le ifi ed iti on P(A B) P(A OR B) = P(A U B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A B) Example: Two events are not mutually exclusive (male gender and blood type O).
P(M OR O) = P(M)+P(O) P(MO) = 0.50 + 0.40 0.20 = 0.70 Excercises 1. If tuberculous meningitis had a case fatality of 20%, (a) Find the probability that this disease would be fatal in two randomly selected patients (the two events are independent) (b) If two patients are selected randomly what is the probability that at least one of them will die? (a) P(first die and second die) = 20% 20% = 0.04 (b) P(first die or second die) = P(first die) + P(second die) - P(both die)
= 20% + 20% - 4% = 36% 2. In a normally distributed population, the probability that a subjects blood cholesterol level will be lower than 1 SD below the mean is 16% and the probability of being blood cholesterol level higher than 2 SD above the mean is 2.5%. What is the probability that a randomly selected subject will have a blood cholesterol level lower than 1 SD below the mean or higher than 2 SD above the mean. P(blood cholesterol level < 1 SD below the mean or 2 SD above the mean) = 16% + 2.5% = 18.5%
3. In a study of the optimum dose of lignocaine required to reduce pain on injection of an intravenous agent used for induction of anesthesia, four dosing groups were considered (group A received no lignocaine, while groups B, C, and D received 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg, respectively). The following table shows the patients cross-classified by dose and pain score: Compute the following probabilities randomly selected patient: for a Pain score
Group Total A B C D 0 1 2
3 49 16 8 4 73 7 5 1 58 7 6
0 62 8 6 0 Total 77 1.being of group D and experiencing no pain 2.belonging to group B or having a pain score of 2
3.having a pain score of 3 given that 86 71 76 242 38 25 5 310 Nightlights and Myopia
Assuming these data are representative of a larger population, what is the approximate probability that someone from that population who sleeps with a nightlight in early childhood will develop some degree of myopia? Note: 72 + 7 = 79 of the 232 nightlight users developed some degree of myopia. So the probability to be 79/232 = 0.34. Assignment: Daniel WW. Page 76-81 Questions: 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22
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