What NFPA 70E Electrical Safety Really Means to your Customers Presented by: Philip Allen Your trusted partner for productive safety TOPICS Where NFPA 70E is going? 2018? How does OSHA fit in?
What is safety and how is it sold? Why is electrical equipment maintenance such a big deal? Predictive vs Routine maintenance Q&A Your trusted partner for productive safety NFPA 70E/CSA Z462 Finally a mature standard Highlights
New 2018 versionCSA Z462 Identical Maintenance is electrical safety Better understanding of incident energy More reliable power systems and productivity Added permanently mounted test instrument
More risk based--expanded risk assessment & RCH section Utility power plants Your trusted partner for productive safety What does Risk-Based Mean? Compliance & Process verses culture Under normal operating conditions, enclosed energized equipment that has been properly installed and maintained is not likely to pose an arc
flash hazard. NFPA 70E 100 OSHA Additional Measure Hazard risk analysis for exception UL-1436 introduced a SIL3 reliability standard Your trusted partner for productive safety Arc Flash Causes 1) Dropped tools, screws, nuts and bolts
2) Racking out switchgear circuit breakers. 3) Racking out MCC buckets 4) Voltmeter testing Your trusted partner for productive safety Survey Results Improved electrical safety due to the following:
More training......................................................... 66.2% Incident Energy Management........................... 23.5% Program Controls.................................................. 20.1% Engineering Controls............................................ 10.3% Reduced Arc Flash Potential.............................. 41.3%
Permanent Electrical Safety Devices (PESDs)... 26.5% Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)................ 57.8% Better Overall Safety Culture.............................. 46.2% Your trusted partner for productive safety OSHA General Duty Clause gives OSHA authority to enforce to best practices or latest consensus standard such as NFPA 70E. (a) Each employer -(1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from
recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees; Violations must cite an OSHA regulation Your trusted partner for productive safety OSHA State OSHAs AK, AZ, CA, CT, HI, IN, IA, KY, MD, MI, MN, NV, NJ, NM, NY, NC, OR, PR, SC, TN, UT, VT, VI, VA, WA, WY Federal OSHA AL, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IL, KS, LA, ME, MA, MS, MO, MT, NE, NH, ND, OH, OK, PA, RI, SD, TN, TX, WV, WI Your trusted partner for productive safety
NFPA 70B/CSA Z463 Highlights New 2016 version Insure proper trip times- [ I2 * T ] More focus on loose connections Guidance on IR inspections Batteries, & UPS
Your trusted partner for productive safety Properly Installed and Maintained 130.1(A)(4) Normal Operation. Normal operation of electric equipment shall be permitted where all of the following conditions are satisfied: (1) The equipment is properly installed. (2) The equipment is properly maintained. (3) The equipment doors are closed and secured. (4) All equipment covers are in place and secured. (5) There is no evidence of impending failure. Maintenance NOW a big part of Electrical Safety Your trusted partner for productive safety SAFETY IS:
The reduction of risk, not the absence of risk. Reducing risk to an acceptable leveldifferent for everyone Risk = Hazard * Probability of exposure Low Risk13.8KV Switchgear High Risk120VAC outlets Highest RiskCreating and Electrically Safe Work Condition We sell safety by getting in front of the plant LOTO committees and tell them how they can reduce risk Your trusted partner for productive safety How to reduce risk:
Your trusted partner for productive safety 12 Eliminating the risk Substituting a lower risk Engineering around the risk Awareness of every risk Administrating and governing actions while exposed to risk Protect workers while exposed to risk Your trusted partner for productive safety
13 Electrical Safety Risk Open Door Reduction Thermography Current Limiting Fuses PPE Arc Flash Mitigation Live Work Permit HRG System
NFPA 70E GFCIs Hot Spot Monitoring Remote Racking Signs PESDs Sequestered Disconnect Your trusted partner for productive safety Arc flash rated MCC & Switchgear Incident Energy Summary
New installs engineer out high incident energy 40+ Cal/cm2 High incident energy is at the substation and line side of switchgear. Most MCCs are below HRC 2 (8 Cal/cm2). Most control panels & power distribution are around HRC 1
230VAC and bus-duct may have high incident energy 11Cal. daily wear covers workers in most areas Your trusted partner for productive safety Your trusted partner for productive safety MAINTENANCE-RELATED CAUSES OF SHOCK & ARC FLASH ACCIDENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10. Carelessness Worn or broken insulation Exposed live parts Loose connections Improper Maintenance Obstructed disconnect panels (Working Space) Wet locations near panels High Voltage cables Static electricity Damaged tools Your trusted partner for productive safety Electrical Engineering Portal, 2016 PREDICTIVE VS ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Risk priority is the primary driver Predictive Maintenance can often be the lower-cost option Predictive Maintenance sometimes results in longer intervals between maintenance
The changing the oil in your car example Your trusted partner for productive safety CAUSES OF HOT SPOTS Contaminated connections Lack of surface area on connection points Loose connections
Improper grounding Incorrect crimping of connections Improper cable training Your trusted partner for productive safety INSULATION FAILURES DUE TO THERMAL OVERLOADS ON XFMRS AMPACITY is a key term
Expected life of industrial XFMRs is 180,000 hours Overheating of XFMR windings degrades expected life EXPONENTIALLY! For example, a 1350C hotspot on a industrial XFMR degrades the life expectancy by 10 TIMES Your trusted partner for productive safety This is whats behind the
cover A PREVENTABLE ACCIDENT Your trusted partner for productive safety A PREVENTABLE ACCIDENT Your trusted partner for productive safety A PESD-PREVENTABLE ACCIDENT Your trusted partner for productive safety CLOSING THOUGHTS QUESTIONS? Your trusted partner for productive safety
Obslužnou rutinu končí instrukce „návrat z přerušení" (IRET, RTE) mající opačný efekt: z vrcholu zásobníku vezme položky, které umístí zpět do PC a PSW Při vhodném naformulování položek na vrcholu systémového zásobníku se instrukce návratu z přerušení ...
4.2 Sociocultural Level of Analysis: Social and Cultural Norms. Social Learning Theory. How are norms passed on to individuals in a group? Social Learning. Done through observational learning. Watching models and imitating. Factors. Attention: person must pay attention.
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The money multiplier links the monetary base to the money supply. As long as the value of the money multiplier is stable, the Fed can control the money supply by controlling the monetary base. There is a close connection between...
I frame, where I stands for Intra-coded, uses intra-frame compression only and it is independent to other frames. When the client get an I frame, it can decode it and play it immediately. P frame, where P stands for Predictive-coded,...
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15-* Disadvantage #1: Requires managers to distinguish variable costs from fixed costs, which is often a challenging task. Disadvantage #2: Does not indicate to operating managers the cost of fixed support department resources used because fixed costs are allocated to...
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