AUTONOMOUS VISUAL ROVER Sean Day Diante Reid Liem Huynh Project Overview To create a vehicle that autonomously follows a moving object using color detection To design a low cost, mobile robot that can track objects based on image processing Implement all of the parts using the Atmel microcontroller Track any color specified by the user Requirements Operate solely on 7.2 V Ni-Cad battery for at least 1 hour Keep a minimum of 10 inches away from target at all time. Have a dimension of no more than
12x15 inches Track object within color range 0 80 0 80 50 255 Top Level Diagram Environme nt Images Target Ultrasonic Signals CMUCam 2+ Maxbotix LV-EZ2 Centroid and Servo Location PWM
Target Location Sensors Manage r Controller Target Range Environme nt Software Hardware Actuators PWM Microcontroller - Arduino ATMEGA328 USB Interface Cross-platform Easy to program
Open source Well documented Microcontroller Specs Operating Voltage : 5V Digital I/O : 8 Pins PWM: 6 Pins Analog Input : 6 Pins Flash Memory : 32kB Clock Speed : 16 MHz Communication : UART Printed Circuit Board PCB123 software $100 student credit from sunstone
Prototyped on the Arduino board 2 layer design Using through Image Processing Goals Color detection Ability to distinguish between specified color and other colors in environment Detect centroid of specified object Blob Detection Middle Mass Determines if a group of connecting pixels are related to each other by surroundings Efficient in identifying separate objects in a scene
Image Processing Techniques Edge Detection Canny detection Edges are areas where a jump in intensity from one pixel to the next occurs Able to reduce the amount of data processed by filtering out useless information CMOS vs. CCD Sensor CMOS Transistor based Flexible design Average picture quality Low power consumption Low Price
CCD (charge coupled device) Analog device Rigid design Excellent picture quality Power hungry Very Expensive Choosing a Vision System CMUcam1 CMUcam2 CMUcam3 AVRcam Logitech QuickCam Orbit AF Webcam + RoboRealm CMUcam Comparison Price Frame Rate Resolution
RAM ROM SPEED CMUcam1 $109.99 17 fps 80x143 136 bytes 2048 words 75 MHz CMUcam2 $179.99
$99.00 30 fps 88x144 700 bytes 512bytes 16MHZ CMUcam2+ Vision Sensor Performs image processing duties for AVR Track user defined color blobs at up to 50 Frames Per Second Track motion using frame differencing at 26 Frames Per
Second Gather a 28 bin histogram of each color channel Process Horizontally Edge Filtered Images Why CMUcam2+ Compact Size Frame Buffering Affordable price Multiple Servo Control User Support Histograms CMUcam2+ Software Open Source Programmable CMUcamGUI Allows user to see from cameras perspective
Power Needs Part Watts Ultrasonic Sensor 50mW H-Bridge 10W Steering Servo 75mW CMU cam2+ 1.5W Voltage Regulation All parts on AVR
can run off of 5volts DC Stepping Down 7.2 Volt battery LM7805 regulator Ultrasonic Sensor Objectives Purpose is to keep AVR within 10 inches of target object Be able to fit on front bumper Will not loose the target object Low power consumption Ultrasonic Sensor Comparison Sensor Model Price Size
Output Power SRF08 $64.00 1.7 x .79 x .67 Analog/ Digital 75mW Ping Range Finder $29.95 0.85 x 1.8 x 0.6 PWM
100mW Maxbotics $27.95 .79 x .87 PWM/ Analog 10mW Maxbotics Ultrasonic Sensor Maxbotics EZ2 Will easily fit on bumper Only draws 2mA of current Easy to interface Interfacing the Sensor
Pulse Width Modulation 147 microseconds/inch Analog Input (Vcc/512)/inch Communication RS-232 Serial Predetermined distance controlled by C progam H-Bridge Pololu High- Power Motor Driver 18v15 70A stall current 1.3 x 0.8 15A continuous
output Max PWM frequency 40Hz Batteries Chassis 4 wheel drive 2 front turning wheels 2 rear wheels for going backward and forward 1 DC motor 1 Hobby servo Rooms for expansion DC Motor
Speed 19,200 Rpm Stall Current 32A No Load current 1.3A Operating Voltage 3.6 to 6V HiTec HS-311 Servo Pan, Tilt, Steering Max speed .15sec/60 Stall Torque 42 -49 oz/in Operating Voltage
4.8-6.0V Sensors Manager getRange() Returns range from Ultrasonic Sensor in inches getCentroid() Returns centroid location of target in x and y format getPan() Returns location of panning servo getTilt() Returns location of tilting servo Centroid tracking Tracking the objects centroid 1 44
88 Coordinate Transformation 128, 0 CMUcam to Body alignment Body Frame, CMUcam Frame 46, -90 Servo Positions 210, 90 Positive Stop Negative Stop Servo Pos Offset
no Object Found? ye s no Centroid < 34 Forward Left ye s Enter Search Mode Centroid > 54 Good Detection?
Forward Right ye s Revers e no ye s no else Forward Straight Object' s range <=10 inches?
ye s Object' s range = 10 inches? ye s Sto p Search Mode If no detection is found, AVR will go into search mode Pan from negative stop to positive stop (180) No detection Object
Found? Pan left ye s no Servo Pos > -90 & < 0? ye s Exit no Servo Pos < 90? ye s no
no ye s Object Found? Pan right Fault-tolerance AVR stores the last 10 detections into an array: 1 for hit 0 for miss Confident level is defined by taking the average of the stored values If confident level > 70% then its a good detection 1 1 1 0
0 1 1 0 Confident level= 70% Good Detection!! 1 1 Proportional Controller Input + Output - Error P (Range)
Plant Variable speed depends on range from target P gains need to be tuned All control process is done through software Testing DC Motor/ H-bridge test Range Finding Test CMUcam2+ Pan and Tilt Test Testing Locomotion test with ultrasonic sensor stationary target Locomotion test with ultrasonic sensor moving target Locomotion test with CMUcam2+ with stationary target Locomotion test with CMUcam2+ with moving target
Locomotion test with all sensors Finances Real Cost Development Cost Order Date Manufacturer $11.95 $11.95 $11.95 6/30/09 SparkFun
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