Assessing Writing - Mrs. Banks' Resources for Literacy

Assessing Writing - Mrs. Banks' Resources for Literacy

Chapter 11 Writing Reflections on Writing Do you like to write? Do you enjoy journaling or blogging, or recording your thoughts in some other manner? Do you find you need to revise, or do you usually feel that your first draft is close to perfect?

How will you share your feelings about the writing process with your students? How will you encourage those who dont like to write? Similarities Between Reading and Writing Use the same cognitive processes: Gathering ideas Questioning Hypothesizing

Use the same cognitive systems: Semantic Syntactic Graphophonic Pragmatic Similar Goals/Skills of Reading and Writing (Pinnell, 1999) To read/write words without conscious awareness To read/write words without focusing on every

letter To connect unknown words to known words To focus on chunks of words To use root words for determining meaning To connect spelling with meaning To focus on communicating meaning Differences Between Readers and Writers Readers: Receive messages Need to be able to

understand what others have written Decode words Writers: Create and send messages Know their audience, choose the best genre, choose words carefully, and choose the best way to share their writing

Encode words automatically so they can concentrate more on expressing themselves Stages of Emergent Writing (Zecker, 1999) Drawing Scribbling Letter-like forms Copying

Invented spelling Conventional spelling Examples of Writing Stages (Stages 1 through 4) Examples of Writing Stages (Stages 5 through 7) Instructional Practices for Bilingual Students

Provide extended periods of time for students to write, and allow personal choice of topic and genre. Encourage students to use their two languages. Emphasize that students should write original thoughts; tell them not to worry about spelling. Have students read what theyve written to you, so you can help with vocabulary. Value what students write, even if it isnt long. (continued) More Instructional Practices

for Bilingual Students Have students explain how they write, so you can understand their thinking. Encourage students to use their background knowledge when writing. Show students where and how they can find correct spellings. Assess growth by looking at all student writing samples and praise them for their progress. Characteristics of Skilled/Unskilled

Writers Elements of a Writing Workshop Regular, sustained writing sessions Choices for students Teacher and peer feedback Structure Cooperative learning community Mini-lessons for direct, explicit instruction Steps in the Writing Process

Prewriting Drafting Revising Editing Publishing Checklist for Proofreading (second grade) Evaluating Your Writing Instruction Evaluate your performance in these areas: Classroom environment

Instruction Class schedule Professional role model Professional growth How would you evaluate your own writing skills and abilities? Can you act as a good role model for your students? 6 + 1 Traits 1 Idea / content 2 Organization

3 Voice 4 Word choice 5 Sentence fluency 6 Convention +1 Presentation More on the 6 + 1 Traits Teaching the traits: Work with each trait during mini-lessons or guided writing, so students are aware of their importance. Use examples from all types of passages (narrative,

expository, poetry, etc.). Assessing the traits: Assessment that reflects the traits will encourage students to focus on them. See for a sample. Assessment of Writing: Informal Portfolios

Rubrics: Writing process Writing products Multi-media projects Attitude surveys Self-assessment instruments Assessment of Writing: Formal Some standardized tests have language/

grammar subtests. These test editing ability, not writing. Many state departments of education have created standardized rubrics to assess writing. These may cause teachers to show their students how to write so theyll do well on the test, rather than help them to write creatively. Intervention Strategies Focusing on Writing

Interactive writing (Sharing the pen) Quick writes (writing on demand) POW TREE (continued) Some Activities for 6 + 1 Traits of Writing Trait 1 (Ideas and presentation): Story about a pet, sport hero, rock star, or friend

Trait 2 (Organization): How-to procedures Trait 3 (Voice): Letter to a fairy tale character Trait 4 (Word choice): Poems such as diamante and cinquain

Trait 5 (Sentence fluency): Combining sentences Trait 6 (Conventions): Checklists, word walls, personalized dictionaries +1 (Presentation): Computer editing/ illustrating, PowerPoint

presentations More Intervention Strategies Using concrete examples of authors writing Guided writing Mt. Plot Expository frames Parodies Sequels Poetry Cinquain

Diamante Biopoems (continued) More Intervention Strategies Response journals Friendly letters Wordless books Noun stories Classroom alphabet books Creating brochures

Sentence combining Concepts to Teach in Guided Writing Sample Poems Diamante: Pizza Fibbin poem: Pete

Delicious, spicy Sprete Bubbling, steaming, tantalizing Athlete Cheese, mushroomsscraps, litter Molding, rotting, decaying Smelly, yucky

Garbage Plays baseball. Best pitcher in town! Easily strikes out ten batters! Twas only in his dreams that he was such a great star! Using Computers for Authentic Writing Tasks Blogs

Wikis International pen pals Connecting with authors Digital storytelling Publishing on the web Webquests Technology and Writing: Word Processing Helps with drafting/writing/revising (outlining, revising, checking spelling and grammar, etc.)

Gives encouragement to students with messy handwriting However: Students still need to decide on a topic, articulate ideas, have a good understanding of grammar, and be able to recognize correct spelling Related Video Presentation You can see a video in which a student shares his expository writing (which is related to the discussion on page 294 of the chapter).

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