AS Revision Introduction to Physical Education G451
AS Revision Introduction to Physical Education G451 Why do you participate in Physical Activity (or not)? Key ET = Exam TIP KT = Key Term Physical Activity Physical Benefits Eg improved CV fitness or maintenance of a healthy body weight
Mental Benefits Eg stress relief, mood Enhancement, or feel good factor Personal Benefits Eg knowing own strengths and weaknesses or Increasing self esteem. Social Eg feeling of belonging or Having healthy relationships ET = you need to be able to give examples of physical, mental, personal and
social benefits of regular participation in physical activity. Sedentary Lifestyles Recommendations Barriers to Regular Participation 30mins moderate intensity Physical activity x 5 per week Lack of: Energy Perceived ability/skill Friends who participate Suitable facilities nearby
Money eg to join a gym Suitable/correct kit Children and young people 60mins of moderately intense Physical activity each day. At Least two sessions should include higher impact activity To improve bone health, muscle Strength and flexibility. KT Lack of opportunity Lack of provision Lack of esteem
Also: Anxiety about being out after dark Preference to stay at home when its cold or wet Dislike exercise or sweating Embarrassed to show body In brief Key Terms Physical Benefits to do with the body Eg potential to reduce the risk of heart disease. Personal Benefits to do with self Eg improved self-esteem
Social Benefits to do with others Eg having positive relationships Mental Benefits to do with the mind Eg stress relief ET - always use these key terms especially for ten mark questions Esteem Confidence to participate Opportunity The chance to take part based on factors such as time, money etc Provision the availability of facilities which allow for participation.
Physical Recreation Physical Recreation Enjoyment is a key characteristic Who? When? Where? Physical Recreation Benefits? How?
Emphasis on:Participation not performance Taking part, not winning Enjoyment and satisfaction, not record-breaking ET - when asked to identify the characteristics of Phys Rec it is important to be specific and clear in your answers. If simple bland terms are used such as anyone, anywhere at anytime to describe characteristics you will not gain marks. Be specific not vague! ai e a ct ni ti fo
n o gr n th a of se e th n e se at n ur
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m itc io n ac n Remember t that outdoor recreation is physical recreation in the natural environment eg a walking holiday sel Benefits of Outdoor Recreation Exam Tips You need to be able to compare characteristics of Physical Recreation with Remember that Outdoor Recreation means
characteristics of using Sport the natural environment, ( Characteristics of Physical Education Characteristics Of PE Specialist Staff Opportunit y for
GCSE,AS/A level Schoolchil dren and Variety of Practical activities and theoretical elements National Curriculum
Benefits PE can be defined as :1. Learning about and through physical activity 2. The learning of physical, personal, preparatory and qualitative values through formal physical activity in school Benefits of Physical Education Pr P h ys ic al I
m pr o v e d q u al it y of lif e p
ar at o ry Benefits of Physical Education Outdoor Education Constraints of widespread participation In Outdoor Education by young people:Lack of adequate funding, specialist staff and transport costs Distance from natural facilities
Insufficient voluntary contributions from pupils Outdoor activities can take up too much curriculum time. Parents anxieties over H & s concerns and staff reluctant to take responsibility Beginners Perceived Risk Completely safe Imagined Who? When?
Where? Experts Real Risk dangerous even fatal challenging Benefits? How? Characteristics and Benefits of Sport Who?
When? What makes a sport? 1. Tradition 2. Vigorous exertion 3. Competition 4. Administration 5. Behaviour Benefits? Where? Key Terms Physical Prowess Skill
Sportsmanship Fair Play Physical Endeavour Effort and Commitment Gamesmanship Stretching the rules To gain an unfair advantage. Aesthetic movement that is beautiful to watch and pleasing to the eye Deviance seriously breaking the rules Sledging Attempting to undermine an Opponent by verbally abusing , taunting
Characteristics of Surviving Ethnic Sports Occasional/Annual Ritualistic Local Natural Tourism Rowdy Traditional Social Relatively Isolated Exam Tips You need to describe the characteristics of surviving ethnic sports and give reasons for You need to their remember
specific surviving sports and games continued existence andethnic popularity. 19 Century Public Schools th Community Members Oxbridge Blues Teachers
Community Leaders Vicars/Priests Parents Industrialists Assistant Masters Army Officers Move From Popular Recreation (B4 IR) to Rational Recreation (PIR)
Popular Recreation Rational Recreation Localised Local regional national Uncoded Formal codification Cruel/Violent Channelled aggression Irregular/occasional Regular
Courtly/popular Gentry middle working Rural Rural urban Ritual Moral Wagering Gambling curtailed Have a go! what do these key words mean
An amateur A professional An amateur approach to sport A professional approach to sport Gentlemen amateur USA Win at all costs American dream Ivy League Conference- Similar to a league
Highly Commercialised State Capitalist State 300 million people In 50 states American football Rags to riches Franchise- The business that Owns, runs and has voting rights for a team Australia Population 21,007,310 (2008 est.)
Young Nation (1770) James Cook of England charted eastern coast, claimed it for British Crown Retained Colonial Influences Rugby 2 codes Cricket Association football (Socceroos) Immigration Complete time-line on map! Australia Reasons Favourable Climate
Outdoor Lifestyle/Health Conscious Give reasons for physical activity (physical education, physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.  Sporting Success Sport for All Media support and interest Colonialism White Australia Policy Bush Culture
Give reasons for physical activity (physical education, physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.  Reasons Favourable Climate Outdoor Lifestyle/Health Conscious Government Support The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) leads the development of elite sport and is widely acknowledged in Australia and internationally as a world best practice model for elite athlete development. The AIS is a preeminent elite sports training institution in Australia with world class
facilities and support services. The AIS has 35 sport programs in 26 sports. AIS scholarship holders to become tomorrow's world-beaters and all the information on how to join the AIS family is available through the scholarships section. The AIS has been the nation's sports training powerhouse mainly due to the AIS facilities and the cutting edge Sports Science Sports Medicine support. The AIS campus is located in the suburb of Bruce in the Australian Capital
Territory. Sporting Success proof of progress Sport for All Media support and interest A forum for advertisment Tradition of Success Unites a Small Nation
High status in Schools Impact on young Peoples aspirations Funding of Physical Activity In: business profit, ticket sales, TV rights Out:- sponsor individuals, teams, running and maintaining private sports clubs and facilities, buying Private TV rights, Sport Aid Grants, National Sports Foundation Public
In: taxes, gaming duties and National Lottery sales. Out:- Local authorities, awards and grants eg UK sport. Sportsmatch Sponsorship, Armed forces sport Voluntary In: national lottery grants, awards for all, sportsmatch grants, local authority grants, NGBs, fundraising, Foundation for sports and arts, National sports Foundation, Commercial Sponsorship and members subscription Out:- facility building maintenance and development, developing performers (coaching), running a club
W or ld W Cl or as ld s Cl D Years from podium as ev 0 els Ta
o le p nt m -2 e nt World Class Pathway Programme -4 -6 -8 Home country talent development systems
UK Sports Organisations Provision Policy What is their political ideology? Winning Medals Participation Equal Opportunities Increasing our status
Pursuit Of Excellence How can we provide to meet our potential? More grassroots = more elite. Who are they targeting? Administration How is sport structured, organised and funded? What role does each of the organisations play in the pursuit of
participation and excellence? Other Bodies Influencing and Promoting Physical Activity and Sporting Excellence Name Overall Aims To develop elite sport in the UK inc. Ethics, major events, administrative efficiency, works with home countries, helps elite sports development, supports world class performers/coaches etc eg To provide the best performers with the practical support needed to win and compete at the highest level with: sports science and medicine, physiology and biomechanics, performance analysis, massage, physiotherapy, strength and
conditioning, career and education advice etc To get people more active and involved. Invests advises and promotes community sport. Promotes voluntary work such as coaching leadership and officiating. Focus on priority groups (minority groups). Supports school sport. Works closely with local, national and regional bodies in line with NGBs. To increase participation, improve performance and improve the image and management of sport in NI. Develop disadvantaged groups etc To increase participation and improve performance in Scottish sports. Developing sporting people, organisations and facilities, create pathways and promote equality of opportunity tackling discrimination. To get more people more active more often. Active young people, active communities, high level performance and excellence focusing on talented performers. Exam Tip 1 Key sporting bodies and orgs
such as UK sport are not told what to do, however they are answerable to the DCMS due to the funding they receive. The PE, School Sport and Club Links Strategy Gifted and talented JAE programme
Kite Marking Activemark Sportsmark Partnerships National Curriculum School Exam Tip 2 Sports You can only be asked questions Partnership s on material that is in the specification, so you will not get a
question specifically about PESSCL strategy, you may have to identify current government initiatives. Exam Tip 3 There will be five parts to your AS Socio-cultural studies qs. The Final part will be an extended 10 mark question. You have to critically evaluate, and therefore prove how you can think and make judgements. Government Initiatives Answers
Answers ctd Excellence and Participation in UK Highly skilled/elite Fully committed with high level support Emphasis on winning and competing District, county or regional commitment School or club participation, recreational Non-competitive extra curricular - enjoy Introduction to sport-basic skills Positive attitudes to physical activity Exam Tip You could be asked to name and explain
each layer of the sports development pyramid in the examination. Ensure you can recall the ones beginning with p, candidates often get these confused. Excellence Performance Participation Foundation
The Sports Development Pyramid Mass Participation Sporting Excellence The continuum from mass participation to sporting excellence Opportunity Provision Esteem Ethnic Minorities White Flight Groups who are different in their ethnic origin Are we guided into sports due to our race? from the majority of the population. Do we avoid sports where our race has not
traditionally or currently been represented? Race The physical characteristics of an individual. Stacking Self-fulfilling prophecies Countries may concentrate on a particular sport e.g. Kenyan and middle/long distance running. This is where players are put into positions and sports on the basis of their ethnic background. Target Group How do we get Equal Opportunities?
Awareness Changing Attitudes Allocate Funding Adaption/Modification Access Key Terms Attitudes: Outlooks, feelings or thought about something. Stereotyping Typecasting, labelling or pigeonholing people.
Social Exclusion the negative result of factors such as low income, discrimination, poor housing etc that can put some communities at a disadvantage. Myths Untruths eg black males cant swim and women cant park cars. Positive Discrimination Favouritism Or special treatment for the focus Group in order to give them a chance Socialisation the process by which people Learn acceptable cultural beliefs and
behaviour including how to interact with people who are different to themselves. Drugs Media Sponsorship and Violence in "In the name of all Sport competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the
honour of our teams." Reasons for Use Consequences Possible solutions to Drug Use Stricter more rigorous out-of season testing Stricter punishments and life bans Co-ordinated education programmes for athlete and coach More funding for testing programmes and scientific research Unified policies across NGBs Role models promoting drug free sport ET -If a question is asked for solution to the problem of drugs, make sure that you dont list drug types, respond using the bullet points above.
Technology in Sport Safety Exam Tip: Be aware of modern technological products are up-to-date, technical scientific or high-tech items that impact on sport. The impact is usually Considered to be good, but In some cases may increase The chance of injury Eg Football Boots The roles of the media
To Inform Eg Eg To educate Eg To entertain Either directly or indirectly through sponsorship To advertise ET - If you are asked to critically evaluate the impact of the media on sport it simply means that you should way up ( in good written form) the advantages and disadvantages of the media in sport eg additional funding for sport v rule changes and off-peak viewing times.
Media Golden Triangle -The Inter-relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media Sport and Media High level sport is a media commodity. Sport available 24/7 Media control over some sports Celebrities are created and role models can have +ive or iveSport image Low profile sports get little attention so minimal sponsorship opportunities. The Relationship can increase match Golden
fixing and other examples of Triangle deviance. Media Sport and Sponsorship Sponsorship increases popularity and stability of sport. Sport is a relatively inexpensive form of advertising. Money from sponsorship can help improve spectator provision. Powerful sports such as premier league football have some control over their sponsors
Sponsors hip Sponsorship and Media; When sports are covered by the media sponsorship ultimately Increases. Violence by Players Causes Of Violence by Players Cauldron Effect Aggression Provocation Sledging
De-humanised Crowd Behaviour Cheating Solutions to Violence by Players Education Harsher Penalties Rule changes Greater authority Technology
Violence by Spectators Reasons and Solutions Hype AddPre-match here Police Liaison Primitive All-Seater Intimidate Segregation
Incite Deterrents Ethics and High Level Sport Deviance Sportsmanship Gamesmanship Fair play Etiquette Letter and Spirit of The Law
The Olympic Games KT Olympic Charter- The rule book that governs how the Olympic Games and IOC are run. The Olympic Charter Principles Aims Philosophy The bringing together of people from 5 different continents Promotes Olympic games
Fund raises Appoints official sponsors of 2012 Manages Team GB Inc. transport and kit Helps select Team GB Organises visits to Host City prior to games Helps athletes and NGBs prepare for Olympic Games Works on Olympic Bids
Key Terms Centralised System A system where political and administrative power is held centrally with no regional or local government control Shop Window Effect When sporting success equates with political success and positive role models Communism A centralised political system that opposes capitalism and democracy Elitism To be exclusive or to select the best and to forget the rest Appeasement To pacify or provide a feel good factor
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