Diarthroses Freely movable e.g., shoulder, elbow etc. Classification Three
of Joints (Articulations): structural classes of joints Fibrous No space between articulating bones; held together by dense connective tissue e.g., sutures, distal radius/ulna May be functionally synarthroses or amphiarthroses
Cartilagenous No space between articulating bones; held together by cartilage e.g., pubic symphysis May be funtionally synarthroses or amphiarthroses
Synovial Space (synovial/joint cavity) between articulating bones e.g., shoulder, elbow etc. Functionally are diarthroses The Structure of Synovial Joints The Structure of Synovial Joints
Major synovial joints in the body spinal (e.g. cervical and lumbar) shoulder (glenohumeral) elbow proximal radio-ulnar wrist fingers hip knee ankle/foot
Pronation Supination Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion Inversion/Eversion Elevation/Depression Protraction/Retraction Opposition
Movement at synovial joints occurs through the activity of skeletal muscles Anatomy of skeletal muscles Anatomy of the Muscular System Origin - Muscle attachment that remains
fixed Insertion - Muscle attachment that moves Action - What movement a muscle produces. Movement usually occurs at joints i.e. flexion, extension, abduction, etc. For muscles to create a movement, they can only pull, not push
Muscles in the body rarely work alone, & are usually arranged in groups surrounding a joint A muscle that contracts to create the desired action is known as an agonist or prime mover A muscle that helps the agonist is a synergist. Some synergists act as fixators A muscle that opposes the action of the
agonist, therefore undoing the desired action is an antagonist Skeletal muscle movements Flexion/extension Abduction/adduction Rotation left/right; internal(medial)/external(lateral) pronation/supination Elevation/depression Protraction/retraction
Dorsiflexion/plantarflexion Inversion/eversion *note: muscles of facial expression (e.g. orbicularis oculi; orbicularis oris) produce movements of the features of the face, and therefore the actions use more descriptive terminology
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