Array Detectors

Array Detectors

Array Detectors S W McKnight and C A DiMarzio Focal Plane Arrays Imaging Systems H R Runciman, Thermal Imaging, CRC Press Scanning vs. Staring Arrays Scanning Systems

Point detector or linear array with scanning optics Less complicated detector Calibration easier Scanning system expensive, fragile Fast detector

Staring Arrays Multiple detectors elements to capture pixels of image Less complicated optics (lighter, smaller, no moving parts) Longer integration time to increase sensitivity Need multiplexer for signal read-out

Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) Charge transfer and collection Easier processing, less interconnects CMOS Individually addressed and processed pixels Less power No loss in tranfer N-Channel FET Structure S, Source

G, Gate n+ D, Drain n+ SiO2 Insulator 20-100m

Channel: 2 to 500 m into page P-Type Material NMOS Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor B, Body Channel Length 1 to 10 m

Energy Band Picture of MOSFET (No BiasFlatband) E Ec Ef Ev Metal (Al or Poly-Si)

Oxide (SiO2) Semiconductor (p-Si) z Energy Band Picture of MOSFET (Positive Gate Bias) E

Ec b2 Ef Va b1

Metal (Al or Poly-Si) Oxide (SiO2) Ev Semiconductor (p-Si)

z MOSFET Carrier Reconfiguration (Depletion Bias) E b2 Ec Ef

Va b1 Metal (Al or Poly-Si) Oxide (SiO2)

Depletion Region Ev Semiconductor (p-Si) z Creation of Depletion Layer and

Inversion Channel Depletion layer forms within 1s after bias is applied Inversion channel created by thermally generated carriers in ~ 1 s For times short compared to 1 s, nonequilibrium situation with depletion region and empty channel. Carriers created by optical absorption or external injection can be stored in well for many ms.

Carrier Injection Optical Injection E Ec Current Injection

Vo-Vi Ef Va>Vt Depletion Region Ev Ef

Metal (Al or Poly-Si) Oxide (SiO2) Semiconductor (p-Si) z

Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) S G B Channel Length 1 to 10 m D

S D B ~10 m X nRows Charge Transfer in CCD J Allison, Electronic Engineering Semiconductors and Devices, McGraw-Hill

Streetman & Banerjee, Solid State Electronic Devices, Prentice-Hall Focal Plane Arrays Monolithic Technology

Detector and read-out CCD on same chip Parallel processing (lower cost) Improved ruggedness Lower performance Lower yield Hybrid Technology

Detector and read-out fabricated separately and bonded Single-device processing (more expensive) Thermal mismatch Choice of material for better performance HgCdTe for IR detector Silicon for CCD Hybrid Technology H R Runciman, Thermal Imaging, CRC Press

Hybrid Focal Plane Array J L Miller, Principles of Infrared Technology, Van Norstrand Reinhold Array Interconnects J L Miller, Principles of Infrared Technology, Van Norstrand Reinhold Platinum-Silicide Schottky Detectors

EB~0.22 eV =5.6 PtSi Si h Streetman & Banerjee, Solid State Electronic Devices, Prentice-Hall PtSi Array Detectors

Low quantum efficiency (~1%) Mid-Wave IR detection (1-5) Long integration time (~1/60 s) Good sensitivity ~0.05o C Compatible with Si technology

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