Applied Fieldwork Enquiry Rural Settlement Table A: fieldwork methodologies Fieldwork locality Use of transects (across a feature) Change over time (comparing primary data with secondary sources) Qualitative surveys (analysing perception) Geographical flows (analysing flows and patterns of movement) Rural settlement Investigate land use changes (or economic
land values, environmental change, etc) across a village Consider changing land use over time in a rural environment using maps and photos for historic comparisons Investigate environmental quality of rural environments Analyse commuter movements in a dormitory settlement Investigate pollution away from a motorway (or similar) using indicators such as noise, air quality and lichens Investigate changing functions in a village (e.g. suburbanisation) using past
maps and census data Investigate the sense of place of a village; what makes it special Investigate traffic management problems/solutions in a village Investigate to what extent a village is growing or declining Investigate the impact of second homes or holiday homes in a village Consider the advantages and disadvantages of rural living Table B: conceptual frameworks Geographical theme Rural/village
Place Sphere of influence Cycles and flows Mitigating risk Sustainability Inequality Applying understanding of inequality and associated concepts such as deprivation or equality of access to services Investigating how positive and negative externalities impact on standard of living in urban or rural environments Applying
understanding of uniqueness / identity Applying Applying understanding of understanding change and movement in of sphere of influence / relation to place catchment and how it impacts on places Applying understanding of hazard perception / risk and analysing management strategies / future actions Applying understanding of sustainable communities Comparing two villages (environmental quality, sense of place, growth and
decline, etc) Identifying the sphere of influence of a village (tourism, historic/ cultural attractions, etc) and assessing its impacts on the hinterland Studying rural land use and its impact on infiltration / interception/flood risk Investigating the effectiveness of an existing or planned community to meet requirements of Egans wheel Migration survey which focuses on push-pull factors and their impacts in rural locations Study of commuter flows between an urban and
neighbouring rural location Investigating environmental risk and its management for example, location of a new wind farm Investigating the extent to which a village is Investigating the socioembracing sustainable Investigating traffic economic risks associated with principles (e.g. energy, management issues in a village a declining village transport, recycling, etc) Investigating the impacts of newcomers (e.g. commuters, migrants) on the socioeconomic characteristics of a village Comparing access to services in rural and urban communities within the hinterland of one large urban area Evaluating quality of
life for a named socioeconomic group (for example, young families) in one community WJEC nominated criteria Table A: Methodologies Table B: Conceptual framework 2018: Geographical flows 2018: Cycles and flows 2019: Qualitative surveys 2020: Use of transects 2019: Place 2020: Sphere of Influence The six stages of the enquiry process Ask
questions Evaluate the process Collect data Process & present data Draw conclusions Analysis and application of wider understanding Enquiry 1: Ask questions Has the function of the village changed over time? Why are new houses being built
here? Is there a problem of flooding in the village? What economic activities take place in the village? Is the village economically sustainable? How is traffic managed in the village? Enquiry 2: Collecting data Remember that for one of your two investigations, one of your data collection
methods must be that nominated by WJEC from Table A The second investigation must be underpinned by the nominated conceptual framework (Table B) You can use additional methods of data collection as you wish Remember that fieldwork is an excellent way to practice geographical skills Enquiry 2: Rural settlement methodologies Fieldwork locality Use of transects (across a feature) (2020 exam)
Rural settlement Investigate land use changes (or economic land values, environmental change, etc) across a village (plot land uses on a base map or transect line) Investigate pollution away from a motorway (or similar) using indicators such as noise, air quality and lichens (use air pollution instruments, mobile phone apps or lichen identification chart) Change over time (comparing primary data with secondary sources) Consider changing land use over time in a rural environment using maps
and photos for historic comparisons (compare modern land use maps/photos with historic) Investigate changing functions in a village (e.g. suburbanisation) using past maps and census data (use old maps and census) Investigate to what extent a village is growing or declining (use observations, photos, questionnaires) Qualitative surveys (analysing perception) (2019 exam) Investigate environmental quality of rural environments Investigate the sense of place of a village; what makes it special Investigate the impact of second homes or holiday homes in a village
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of rural living (use EIAs, bi-polar charts, questionnaires, sketches and photos) Geographical flows (analysing flows and patterns of movement) (2018 exam) Analyse commuter movements in a dormitory settlement (conduct traffic counts, questionnaires) Investigate traffic management problems/ solutions in a village (plot traffic management, questionnaires, local council information) Enquiry 2: Tal-y-Bont Consider what methodologies could be used here to
Enquiry 2: Blaengarw Consider what methodologies could be used here to Enquiry 2: Collecting data Design appropriate fieldwork data collecting sheets Select appropriate locations (safety risk assessment - ease of access, geographically sound) Select appropriate sampling techniques (random, systematic, stratified) Ensure accuracy and reliability Remember that students will need to justify
Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Processing data This involves making calculations from the data sheet and could involve: Calculating averages (e.g. traffic or pedestrians) Converting data into percentages or degrees for the drawing of pie charts Comparative statistical measures (e.g. percentage change or difference between places) Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Presenting data This involves selecting appropriate methods to present data and could includ
Use GIS GIS to to plot plot traffic traffic counts counts as as proportional proportional Use circles circles Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Presenting data This involves selecting appropriate methods to present data and could include: Use a word cloud program such as Wordle to present qualitative data Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Presenting data This involves selecting appropriate methods to present data and could include: Use GIS to plot environmental assessment as a choropleth map
Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Presenting data This involves selecting appropriate methods to present data and could include: Secondary data (e.g. Consumer Data Research Centre) could be annotated with text and photos Annotated photo showing characteristics of Tal-yBont Houses upgraded relatively new roofing and newly painted Attractive hilly landscape on the edge of the village Light traffic passing through the centre of the village Traffic management double yellow lines to restrict parking on the main road
Pavement on one side of the road fairly narrow Enquiry 4: Analysing and wider understanding Identify, analyse and interpret trends and patterns Apply knowledge and understanding of geographical concepts and processes to specific evidence collected Trends changes over time, distance, etc. Patterns regular repeating distributions, e.g. linear, radial, circular Enquiry 4: Describing data When describing trends and patterns consider using the acronym GCSE: GC general comment, describing the big picture,
the overall trends and patterns S refer to specific information/data on the graphs, maps and diagrams to support your comments E identify and comment on any exceptions (anomalies) to the overall trend/pattern Enquiry 4: Analysing data The word cloud suggests that the village has a number of characteristics typically associated with rural settlements, such as quiet, peaceful and tranquil. These are characteristics that are attractive to some people. As well as the more positive words, there are some negative words such as boring, dull and lifeless. These words may apply to different parts of the village or simply reflect different peoples opinion. The presence of busy and quiet appear contradictory but they might apply to different parts of the village. Enquiry 5: Drawing conclusions
This involves synthesising (pulling together) findings to reach evidenced conclusions that relate to the initial aim of the enquiry. Heres an example: In conclusion, my results suggest that the village has undergone considerable change over the last hundred years or so. Throughout much of the 20th century mining dominated the landscape and the village provided homes, shops and entertainment for the mine workers and their families. As the mines closed down in the second half of the 20th century, decline set in. The population fell, shops closed and properties became derelict. Several buildings have changed use. Today, the village is a commuter settlement and it is thriving. Several new houses have been built, the shops and pubs are well used and the village has a high environmental quality. Enquiry 5: Drawing conclusions Expected trends and models are not always reflected in the real world, for example: The method of data collection (e.g. transect) can be biased
and unrepresentative giving a distorted set of results Questionnaires conducted at a certain time of day may not be representative of the population as a whole The time of day/week will affect flows of traffic and people EIAs can be adversely affected by the weather conditions Villages may not fit a single type or trend they are often multi-functional and show signs of both decline and prosperity Enquiry 5: Drawing conclusions Weather conditions will affect the outcome of qualitative studies and peoples behaviour in the village
Traffic may vary greatly during the day this may not be picked up by a traffic survey Insufficient or biased responses to questionnaires may distort the results and conclusion Time of year will affect the behaviour of residents and the number of visitors to the village Enquiry 6: Evaluating the process Identify the limitations of geographical evidence accuracy, reliability and bias
Reflect critically on the strengths and limitations of both primary and secondary data, methods used, conclusions drawn and knowledge gained Appreciate that stakeholders may have vested interests, introducing bias. Enquiry 6: Evaluating the process How might your results be different on another day or at a different time of year? How might an increase in the sample size or the number of sites have improved reliability? With practice, might data collection techniques have been more accurate?
Was the sampling strategy appropriate? Could inaccurate diagram construction have affected your conclusions?
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