Applications - Occultation

Applications - Occultation

1 Applications of EMCCDs to Faint Occultations Bruce Holenstein, Russ Genet, and Steve Conard 31st Annual Meeting of the International Occultation Timing Association 04-06 October 2013 Toronto, Canada 2

Agenda What is considered faint? What are emCCDs? Some SNR theory and tests Some projects What is considered faint? A desirable occultation out of the reach of typical IOTA equipment 3

Targets are faint TNO occultations 14th+ magnitude Fast cadence & HTRA Diffraction patterns 200+ fps Small scopes are in use for portability Well under 1-m typical Lowland observing & program objects at low altitudes

Lots of atmospheric extinction 4 What are emCCDs? CCD cameras with an extra set of registers to multiply electrons before readout. Top row from left: Photometrics Cascade 512B emCCD, 512B emCCD w/UV enhanced, 1k emCCD, CoolSNAP K4 Bottom row: Supercircuits 164CEX-2, Andor Luca-S

emCCD, Watec 902H2-Ultimate, two 902H2s (PAL), Two JAI 6740GE GigEthernet Above: Andor iXon EM+ 887 and 897 emCCDs 5 How emCCDs work Source: Photometrics Cascade user manual

emCCD Noise Reduction 6 CCD read noise reduced from 10s of electrons per pixel to under 0.1 per pixel. Back illumination increases QE. CCD Read noise drops off as em gain increases

QE curves: Andor iXon EM+ and Photometrics Cascade 512Bs use CCD-97 (top curve) Sources: Andor iXon EM+ 897 & Photometrics Cascade brochures Camera specs 7 emCCDs Mounted on small scopes

Top two photos: Photometrics Cascade 512B mounted on a 10 SCT, Right: Luca-S on 8 SCT, Far right: 512B on a 10 Newtonian 9 10 SCT with Andor Luca-S, Orion filter wheel, Barlow, iXon EM+ and Van Slyke

Instruments Slider II (setup for speckle interferometry) SNR Theory for 14 f/4 SCT SNR for four cameras vs object mag. 30-fps, 100-m elevation, 1.2 airmass, Sky: 20th mag./sq.as. Each magnitude fainter worked is about 300% more targets (2.5 mag. is ~30x more!)

Camera comparison on 14 f/10 SCT 11 NGC 7031- above the top of the Cygnus cross (stars ID'ed down to mag ~17) LINEARITY CHECK Video Rate (33ms) Stellacam EX Photometrics 512B emCCD

Camera comparison on 14 f/10 SCT SNR COMPARISON Video rate (33ms) Stellacam EX Photometrics 512B emCCD (Note scales are not the same) 12

mu Gem Lunar Occ. 1314Mar11 16.5 mas fit (red) 0.1 mas fit (red) Media, PA C8, Luca-S at 333fps, unfiltered, LiMovie Scintillation limited SNR! 13

FPS (speed) - Pi Sgr at Villanova, August 10, 2011 Villanova C8, 164CEX-2 CCD, no filter, 30fps 9.4mas per datum Gravic C8, Andor Luca-S emCCD, Sloan r filter, 120fps 2.4 mas per datum Again Scintillation limited SNR 14

Some Projects 15 Programmable timing trigger device (Arduino, GPS shield) Alt-Az Telescope Initiative Projects Larger scopes are needed to

further improve SNR Hubble Optics UL20 1-M Meniscus Mirror Telescope Prototype 16 Weight under 400 lbs Fits in back of Dodge minivan & Jeep Cherokee

On-axis f/4 light bucket w/possible active optics Big Blue from Russ Genet Orion Observatory 1.5-m 17 60 scope designed and built by Russ Genet; CalPoly students Mounir El-Koussa, Laura

Rice, and Mike Vickery; mirror cell by Donny Mott; SiTech donated controller/drive; DOTI donated mirror; scope finalized by Reed and Chris Estrada Scaled up design to 2.4-m Designed by Mounir El-Koussa, R. Genet, B. Holenstein, D. Mott; funding by Gravic and Collins Foundation

18 Conclusions emCCDs cameras can help IOTA in certain situations 19 emCCDs have a 2 to 3 magnitude advantage at video rates over typical IOTA cameras

On photon challenged (sm. aperture) scopes Low altitude or contrast events where a better SNR is needed Challenged in certain situations Cameras are expensive, heavier, less portable, and need more power Scintillation noise hampers fast cadence & HTRA measures so one needs larger scopes 0.5-m & up 20

Contacts Emails: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Alt-Az Telescope Initiative Website - www.AltAzInitiative.org Yahoo Discussion Group http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AltAzInitiative

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • A Brief Introduction to Configuration Management Guozheng Ge

    A Brief Introduction to Configuration Management Guozheng Ge

    A Brief Introduction to Configuration Management Guozheng Ge ([email protected]) Computer Science Dept., UC Santa Cruz*
  • Lecture 1: Cultural Implications of Technology

    Lecture 1: Cultural Implications of Technology

    Sociopathic behavior on the Internet. Dissocial personality disorder, definition p. 196. Types: Cyberbully: uses the Internet to harass a particular target, often using fake identities or public Web sites to enable harassment; often chooses targets known in real life
  • Landform Regions

    Landform Regions

    The N.A. Plate and Pacific Plate are moving against one another Most active earthquake region Plates are moving at a rate of 2cm to 10cm per year Very popular tourist area To summarize… The movement of Earth's plates and the...
  • Gastrointestinal System - Weebly

    Gastrointestinal System - Weebly

    Cardiovascular System. Sinoatrial (SA) Node: upper portion of right atrium; called the "pacemaker" of the heart as it has the ability to initiate the heartbeat without external nerve stimulation
  • Emergency Substitute class orders

    Emergency Substitute class orders

    Student Planner April 19, 2016 Place this in the proper place Vocab quiz Thursday. Study Sputnik 1957
  • Volcanic Landforms - monroe.k12.ky.us

    Volcanic Landforms - monroe.k12.ky.us

    Volcanic Landforms Landforms From Lava and Ash Rock and other materials formed from lava create a variety of landforms including shield volcanoes, composite volcanoes, cinder cone volcanoes, and lava plateaus. Shield Volcanoes A wide gently sloping mountain made of layers...
  • 5.2 Calorimetry and Enthalpy

    5.2 Calorimetry and Enthalpy

    Connecting Enthalpy Change and Molar Enthalpy Change. The amount of enthalpy change depends on the quantity of matter that undergoes the change . For example, it takes more energy to convert 1 L of liquid water to water vapor than...
  • Procedural and Persuasive Texts Functions and Features

    Procedural and Persuasive Texts Functions and Features

    Arial Times New Roman Struttura predefinita Procedural and Persuasive Texts Functions and Features Procedural texts Procedural texts Persuasive (or Hortatory ) texts Features of Persuasive Texts Example Example STRUCTURE ANALYSIS LANGUAGE FEATURES ANALYSIS Text genre variation FROM PERSUASIVE TO ANALYTICAL...