APA Workshop To begin, a little introduction is in order ASC: A Brief Overview --We are a free tutoring service, sort ofthe fees for the use of the lab come out of your student fees each semester, so there is no extra charge to use the lab or get help from a tutor. --No appointments necessary--*usually--so feel free to come in at your leisure. --You are welcome to come into the lab just to work, even if you dont think you need a tutor.
ASC Stuff: Cont. We offer tutors in most areas, including, but not limited to, math, writing, science (chem, bio, A&P, psych, physics), business, music, Spanish and stats. I like to keep the tutors busy, so if you feel you need help, with, say, your APA formatted paper we ask that you dont wait until the last minute (you know, when the panic really sets in) to seek us out. Were here to help, so let us. And Still More ASC Stuff
We are located directly to the west of the Tennis Bubble, north of Cisel Hall, south of the Student Union and east of McMullen Hall. Our ours look like this: Mon.-Thurs: 8am-7pm, Fri: 8am-5pm and Sat: 9am-12pm. Fun facts known by few: those who regularly use the ASC (a couple of times a week), on average, earn .72 of a GPA point more than those who dont (ex: a GPA of 2.28 goes up to a 3.00). We also see an 88% pass rate (especially in gen. ed. Students) for those who use us regularly, as opposed to a 65% pass rate for those who dont. Hope to see you soon.
Are there any questions? But Enough about Me Your crash course in APA (American Psych. Association). In-Text Citations (6.11-6.21 in APA manual). A couple of ways to do the in-text citations:
Obviously, place all in-text citations at the most appropriate point in the sentence. The first method: place the citation as a parenthetical reference just before the period Ex: on the kingsroad by day (Martin, 1999, p. 81). In-Text Citation Cont. The second method: Use the author and year to introduce the quotation, with the page number following as a parenthetical. Ex: To illustrate, Martin (1999) wrote, There seemed to be
more camps every night, and more traffic on the kingsroad by day (p. 81). Some Things to Note: The citation has the last names(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication IF the material is paraphrased or summarized. IF material is quoted, the citation has to include the page(s) on which the quotation is found in the original. In block quotation (more on this presently), put the citation after the punctuation.
Yet More Things to Note: Bear in mind that APA uses the past tense when leading in to borrowed/referenced material. Ex: to illustrate, Martin (1999) noted, Morn, noon, and night they came (p. 81). Please double check your borrowed material to make sure it is verbatim (word for word, all the punctuation in its proper place). Also, when borrowed material falls on more than one page, use (pp. 81-82).
Still More Things to Note: Work by multiple authors: When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text. With 3, 4, or 5 authors, cite all authors the first time and in subsequent instances, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al (no italics with a period after al). Ex: ...Martin, Gaiman, King and Hill (1999) wrote, (p. 81). Ex: Martin et al. (1999) wrote, (p. 81). Nope, Still Not Done Noting:
In a work with no identified author, cite the first few words of the reference entry (most often the title) along with the year. Ex: on free care (Study Finds, 2007) Ex: the book College Bound Seniors (2008) Note the difference in sources: the one in quotation marks is referring to an article (minor work), while the italicized source is a book (major work). A Brief Discourse on the Joys of Block Quotations: General Guidelines:
1) Any quotation of 40 or more words 2) Do not use quotation marks to set off block quotations, but do use double quotation marks to note any quoted material within the block quotation. 3) Indent about inch from the left marginsame position as a new paragraph. 4) IF there is more than one paragraph to the block, indent subsequent paragraphs. 5) Block quotations are double spaced. 6) Parenthetical citation will come AFTER the final punctuation. Next paragraph of your text will not be indented.
Cause Block Quotes Are Fun, Thats Why: Ex: to comment on Aryas condition, Martin (1999) wrote: Arya did not dare, even though she smelled as bad as Yoren by now, all sour and stinky. Some of the creatures living in her clothes had come all the way from Flea Bottom with her; it didnt seem right to drown them. Tarber and Hot Pie and the Bull joined the line of men headed for the tubs. Others settled down in front of the bathhouse. The rest crowded into the common room. Yoren even sent Lommy out with tankards for the three in fetters, whod been left chained up in the back of their wagon. (p.83) Right or wrong:
1) as George R. R. Martin (1999) stated, I do, my lord. We are to follow the coast, staying always in sight of land, until we reach Crackclaw Point. (p. 588) 2) Martin, in his finest form, writes, Grenn and Dywen were among the brothers who had gathered round the fire (p. 371). 3) giving voice to Tyrions state of mind, Martin (1999) noted, Through the door came the soft sound of the high harp, mingled with a trilling of pipes (p. 397). 4) To elaborate, the words, A low rumbling growl rose from Summers throat, and there was no play in it. He stalked forward, all teeth and hot eyes (Martin, 1999, p.438) give the reader a true sense of the tension in the scene. Again, Right or Wrong:
1) Never a man at a loss for words, Martin (1999) wrote: The direwolves closed. Meera abandoned spear and net, jumped up, and grabbed the branch above her head. Shaggys jaws snapped shut beneath her ankle as she swung up and over the limb. Summer sat back on his haunches and howled, while Shaggydog worried the net, shaking it in his teeth (p. 439). This gives credence Last One, I Swear: For example, Martin (1999) once wrote: The feast was a meager enough thing, a succession of fish stews,
black bread, and spiceless goat. The tastiest thing Theon found to eat was an onion pie. Ale and wine continued to flow well after the last courses had been cleared away. (p. 393). And Now the Fun Begins Reference page (Sect. 2.11, page 37 and 193the beginning of Chap. 7)some guidelines: 1) Begin the reference list on a new page 2) Same header and appropriate page number required. 3) The word References, centered with no punctuation, is needed at the top of the page.
4) References should be typed in alphabetical order (based on the authors last name) 5) References should be double spaced. 6) First line flush to the left, subsequent lines should be indented inch from the left (called a hanging indent). 7) Seeing as the rules of order of information in reference entries are VERY specific, youll want to obtain reliable handouts (ASChint, hint) or the current edition of the APA handbook. Had to Throw in Some Stuff on Hard Copies.
Books will look like this: Authors Surname, Authors initials. (Year). Book Title. Place of Publication: Publishers Name. Martin, G. R. R. (1999). A Clash of Kings. New York: Bantam. But Since MOST People Prefer Online Sources: General Format: Authors Surname, Authors initials. (Year of Publication, Month, Daythough it should be pointed out that
month and day arent needed if a volume and issue are given). Title of Article or Page. Name of Periodical or Organization Periodical Volume (issue). Retrieved from URL address (no punctuation) Ex: Ekwurzel, B. (2006, September 18). Hurricanes and climate change. Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved from htt://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/sci
ence_and_impacts/science/hurricanes-and-climate- change.html Note: 1) No capitalization other than the first word of the articles title, but name of association capitalized, where appropriate, and italicized. 2) Entire name of the monthno abbreviations. Stand-Alone Document, No Author, No Date, from Website. Title. (Date, if availableotherwise, use n.d.). Name of Organization. Retrieved from http://... Yellowstone flyfishing. (n.d.). Yellowstone Media Group.
Retrieved from http://www.yellowstone.net/fishing.htm Note: Title used in lieu of authors name, since there is no name to use (I know: Im stating the obvious). Journal Article with DOI. Authors Surname. (Year). Articles title. Publications Name, volume(issue), page numbers. DOI number Keifer, J. Pavlovs dogs and conditioned responses. Modern Psychology, 12(2), 225-236. doi:10.1037/00029422.214.171.1242 Note: No punctuation at the end of DOI number.
If there is no DOI number, simply replace it with Retrieved from+URL. Finally, note that the volume number in the citation is italicized. Journal Article from a Database: Authors Surname. (Date). Title. Publication, volume, Pages. Hedges, L. V. & Vevea, J. L. (1998). Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis. Psychological Methods, 486-504.
3, Report from a Private Organization: Name of Organization. (Date: Year, Month, Day). Title of Documents (italicized). Retrieved CARE. (2009, October 5). CARE responds to Indonesian earthquake, Asian Pacific typhoons. Retrieved from http://www.care.org/newsroom/articles/2009/10 indonesia9/10/indonesia-earthquake-typhoon-ketsana- 20091005.asp
Note: You can go either way with the hyperlink (you can have it in color or in plain black). Government Document Online: Name of Govt Org. (Year, Month Day). Title of Document. Title of Bigger Work. Retrieved from United States Congress, Senate. (1999, March 24). World War II Memorial Completion Act. House Bill 1247. Retrieved from http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-
bin/useftp.cgi? Ipaddress=126.96.36.199&file name=h1247ih.txt&directory=/dujb/ wais/ date/106_cong_bills And Newspaper Article: Authors Name. (Year, Month Day). Title of Article (again, no
quotation marks). Name of Newspaper. Retrieved Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New York from http://www.nytimes.com Times. Retrieved Finally
Thanks and let me leave you with some reminders: 1) No first namesAPA doesnt use them in an effort to avoid any gender bias. 2) I know this has been only a taste of the APA style, so Ill remind you to come in to the ASC for any other help you may need (handouts, the APA manual, a tutor, etc.). Again, I like to keep the tutors busy. 3) Please, if you take nothing else from this, remember: Wikipedia is NOT your friend. Use valid sources. 4) Oh yeah, Dr. Barfield wanted me to show you how to find the ASCs handouts
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