AP World History Review - Hawn's Hubbub

AP World History Review - Hawn's Hubbub

AP World Review EXAM: May 14, 2015 Morning Session Test Format Actual time that it takes to complete the exam: 3 Hours and 5 Minutes: 55 Minutes for 70 Multiple Choice Questions 130 minutes for 3 Free-Response Questions (Essays) 50 Minutes for Document Based Question (10 minutes for Reading and Evaluating Documents) 40 Minutes for Change Over Time Essay 40 Minutes for Comparative Essay Historical Periodization Coverage: Foundations to 600 C.E:

19-20% of Questions 600 C.E-1450 C.E: 22 % of Questions 1450 C.E- 1750 C.E: 19-20% of Questions 1750 C.E- 1914 C.E: 19-20% of Questions 1914-Present: 19-20% of Questions Five Themes of World History AP Interaction between humans & the environment: demography & disease, migration, patterns of

settlement, technology Development and interaction of cultures: religions; belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies; science & technology; the arts and architecture State-building, expansion, and conflict: political structures & forms of governance, empires; nations & nationalism; revolts & revolutions; regional, transregional, & global structures & organizations Creation, expansion, & interaction of economic systems: agricultural & pastoral production, trade & commerce, labor systems, industrialization, capitalism & socialism Development and transformation of social structures: gender roles and relations, family & kinship, racial & ethnic constructions; social & economic classes As defined by the College Board for use in testing. What do the multiple-choice questions look like The 70 questions fall into 6 basic categories:

Identification (35-40% of the test) - simply test whether you know a fact or facts. Analytical (20-25% of the test) - makes you think about relationships, see connections, place in order. Quotation Based (10% or less of the test) - match the quote with the appropriate person. Image Interpretation (10% or less of the test) - determine images relevance, purpose, or meaning. Map Based Questions (10% or less of the test) - identify what a map shows, or interpret its purpose. Graph & Chart Interpretation (10% or less of the test) - interpret answer from data given in chart form. Free-Response Questions

DBQ: Students answer a question based on documents; there are no irrelevant or deliberately misleading documents. This question focuses on historical skills within a world history framework requiring students to demonstrate skills of understanding context, point of view, and frame of reference. Change Over Time: Covering at least one of the periods in the course, students answer a question that focuses on large global issues such as technology, trade, culture, migrations, and environmental differences, requiring analysis of causation, analysis of the process of change, and discussion of continuities accompanying changes. Free-Response Questions Comparative: This is an essay that asks students to analyze similarities and/or differences in at least two societies, relating to major themes such as culture, trade, migrations and/or interactions between or among societies. Grading

70 Multiple Choice Questions = 1/2 Score Document Based Question = 16.66% Change Over Time Essay = 16.66% Comparative Essay = 16.66% Essays Graded on Scale of 0 to 9 Basic score (7) achieved before expanded score points (2) considered Foundations Unit: 8000 BCE - 600 CE Neolithic Revolution Civilization vs. Culture River Valley & Classical Civilizations World Religions Stone Age

Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) Tools were used Simple Huts Fire Hunter Gatherer Societies Family or Clan Groupings Political Organizations Begin Art and Music also practiced Agricultural Revolution: Neolithic Revolution Occurred around end of Great Ice Age Rapid Population Growth Need for Change of Food Supply New Skills Needed Pastoralism and Agriculture Begins with Domestication of Plants and Animals Others ways to tell if it is a civilization

Primary food above the subsistence level Indicators of more time Other measurement is surplus characteristics of civilization include Writing Cities Established states Technology Issues of Civilization vs. Cultures

What advantages does an agriculturally based society have over a hunter/gatherer based society? The greatest advantage is reliable food supply, and hence, the capacity to support larger populations. Agriculture produces surpluses, and those and agriculture's sedentary nature, open the door to specialization and a more elaborate culture, etc. Why is the development of writing important in the history of the river valley civilizations? Writing is essential for record keeping, bureaucracy, commerce, and accumulating knowledge; it also makes possible more varied cultural forms. Writing also led to new social divisions based on selective literacy. Compared to noncivilized societies, what are the major drawbacks of civilization? Often have inequality in social structure and gender as well as disease and war.

Neolithic Revolution What was it? Initial results A period that saw the development of varied, specialized tools and accompanied the introduction of agriculture. It opened the potential for agriculture and the resultant differentiations with hunting and gathering. Impact People settled down and cities developed which led to complex systems developing and the change from societies to

civilizations Results of Neolithic Revolution Diversification of crops Development of communities & villages Not based on family ties Lead to formation of cities & civilization Early religions form around harvest and planting seasons Specialization of labor Improved tools

Development of social classes Gender roles redefined and diverge PreHistory Presence of a written language Writing is essential for record keeping, bureaucracy, commerce, and accumulating knowledge; It makes possible more varied cultural forms. Writing also led to new social divisions based on selective literacy History

Scribes Scholarly gentry Dark Age Art of writing has developed and been lost River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia (between two rivers) Tigris and Euphrates River Valley Flooding unpredictable in both time and force Fertile Crescent Written Language: Cuneiform Epic of Gilgamesh Hammurabis Code

Egypt Nile River valley: Upper and Lower Egypt Inundation: regular flooding Schedule Monarchy: Pharaoh and Small class of Priests Duality: Complex Religion, Mummification Book of the Dead Many great Inventions and Advances Comparison of Egypt and Mesopotamia Common features include writing, surplus, cities, and established governments:

Cuneiform & Hieroglyphics Architecture is massive; building materials differ Differences Cultural tone Cultural features like ideas of death Artistic forms Literary emphases Government organization Egypt placed more emphasis on monarchy and political stability and held larger territories for longer periods while Fertile Crescent had citystates that constantly vied for control of the area and form empires (Sumerians, Assyrians, Akkadians, Chaldeons, Babylonians, etc Mobilization of labor in Egypt vs. Migrations of people into Mesopotamia Issue of stability vs. instability : fragmentation in Mesopotamia which required warlike technology and different issues of control River Valley Civilizations

Indus Valley Indus and Ganges Rivers Reason for decline not known Highly unified and organized government Artistic Linear B China Yellow River valley Shang China: first dynasty Monarchy Bronze work, silk making, pottery, jade Zhou Dynasty: many Advancements Mandate of heaven Impact It

appears that the impact of the Indus is less than the Hwang Ho river-valley civilizations, because China was much less disrupted, and thus evidenced more continuities. What evidence could you use to show that Hwang He river valley had greater impact on the development of China than did the Indus River Valley (Mohenjo-daro and Harappa)? Aryan Invasion & Development of Hinduism vs. Chinese Dynasties Political structure tied to social order and culture by Confucianism Confucianism emphasized order, hierarchy, and deference, including specific injunctions to obey the emperor. Bureaucracy aimed to alleviate political instability,

difficulties of centrally controlling outlying provinces, and related competition among landed aristocrats for power and influence. Daoism also supports order by one way or the way although it didnt support the emperor Throughout pendulum changes in level and type of Confucianism Qin dynasty outlawed Confucianism Legalism encouraged actions based on law and furthered the totalitarian state Actually began to develop in the Zhou dynasty but was used by Shih Huang Di to unite the region under his Qin

dynasty Different than Confucianism which was based on ethics and right behavior and rites or ceremonies which promote the social and political order Adopted as state religion under Wu Di of Han Dynasty Song Dynasty developed Neoconfucianism Ancient Chinese Dynasties I. Early (Neolithic, then River Valley, Huang He) A. Yangshau - 6000 - 5000 BCE B. Longshan - 5000 - 4000 BCE II. Bronze Age (1500-600 BCE) A. Shang Dynasty (1500-1122 BCE) B. Chou (Zhou) (1122-256 BCE) III. Classical Age (600 BC E- 200 CE) A. Late Chou (Zhou) (600-221 BCE) 1. Confucius B. Chin (First Emperor) (221-206 BCE) (Shi Hwang Di) 1. First Called China C. Han (paper) (202 BCE- 220 CE) 1. 90 % of Chinese consider themselves Han still today

2. Pax Sinica a. Wu Di (140 BCE - 87 BCE) IV. Age of Division (200-600 CE) A. Three Kingdoms B. Northern and Southern (Wui, Sui) V. Post Classical (600-1200 CE) A. Tang (618-907 CE) B. Sung (960-1279 CE) VI. Yuan Dynasty or Mongol Age (1200-1350 CE) Southwestern Asia Civilizations Persians Created one of the largest empires on world history :from Turkey to Libya Cyrus the Great was first king, Darius the Great Advanced Postal System, Roads, Single Currency, and Decentralized Government Zoroastrianism: Primary Religion (form of monotheism) Fell to Alexander the Great

Phoenicians Syria and Lebanon Advanced Export Economy Skilled Traders Established Carthage First Alphabet Southwestern Asia Civilizations Lydians and Coined money Hebrews Ethical monotheism Monotheism represented a significant departure from polytheism in its concept of ethics and ideas of justice and in the extent to which the world was viewed as orderly. Diaspora Assyrians and Introduction of iron weapons Babylonians Significant law code

Code of Hammurabi MesoAmerica Did not have the large animals Diseases that they carried were not present but made peoples of Mesoamerica vulnerable to disease when they connected to the Europeans in the second millennium Archaic period includes beginning of agricultural experimentation Olmecs are the first preclassical civilization (ca. 1150 BCE) site is San Lorenzo Around La Venta about 35 BCE system of writing is present About 100 CE, at Teotihuacn, the Pyramids of the Sun and Moon and the Avenue of the Dead are erected at the "center of the

universe" as monuments to the gods of creation Early Mayans Environmental determinism Relationship between culture of a civilization, success and stability How does the culture react to the environment or environmental change Technology Movement of peoples into and out of the area Crossroads vs. isolation Classical Civilizations Han Dynasty in China Greco Roman Civilizations

Development of Greco Persian Tradition (Hellenistic) Roman Empire Gupta Empire in Indian Subcontinent Empires (Land based & Sea based) Initial development Resources available Adaptability Demographic concerns

Period of great productivity and cultural advancement (Pax Romana, Pax Sinica, Pax Mongolica) How can you feed your people Usually some period where conflict between agricultural productivity and availability of luxuries Have to placate the farmers and peasants Labor concerns Less outside challenges from one source Lots of minor challenges so have to increase army which means relying on those whom you conquered Technological advancements to maintain empire (aqueducts for Romans) Centralization of power

Decline Corruption Morality concerns Religious issues Economic crisis Succession and dynastic issues Expansion is required but cannot hold onto borders Outside invaders Overview

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. About 1200 BCE collapse and instability of civilizations in Mesopotamia or Southwestern Asia, North Africa, Southern Europe (Hittites, Mycenaean, Egypt had outside invaders to deal with) We start seeing connections because they were interrelated; they probably influenced each others collapse These connections and the recovery of similar centralized empires creates the environment for great civilizations known as the classical era [(set up by the Qin) Han, (Maurya and Asoka) Gupta, Greece & Rome] What were the strengths and weaknesses of each of the classical civilizations what made them succeed and what made them fail. (had to define succeed) Empire Political, Social, Economic, Education and Cultural aspects of each Intellectual Ideas (Great philosophies and religions)

Technological Advancements that helped Geographic influences How did each civilization influence the other? Silk Roads, role of merchants in society, role of religion and its spread, role of nomads in cultural diffusion Forms of Government Oligarchy Rule by a group of elite families or rule by a few Monarchy Leadership by one person passed through family Constitutional Monarchy limits to power by constitution or

parliament Republic Citizens all participate in government through representatives Government that is voted upon (elected) Democracy All citizens play the same role in government Theocracy Rule by the church or priests (No separation of Church and State) Tyrant takes control Ancient Greece Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean Civilizations

Trading Societies (environmental determinism) Conquest (Trojan war) Joined into single Culture called Hellenes or Greeks Archaic period Greek City States: Polis Athens: educated, great thinkers Sparta: Warlike, Soldiers, Military Strength Beginnings of Democracy Began in Athens Pericles Not full enfranchisement

Most representative government in Ancient World Ancient Greece Peloponnesian War Conflict between Athens and Sparta Left Greece Weak Open to conquest from Persians and then Macedonian Alexander the Great Alexander the Great Great Conqueror, took over Asia, Persian Empire, territory to borderlands of India Spread Greek Culture throughout Western Eurasia Hellenic Culture Science was important, Geometry, physics, mathematics and astronomy Poetry (Homer), Drama(Sophocles, Aeschyles, Euripedes) Philosophy, (Socrates, Plato)

Persian Empire Achaemenid Xerxes (Persian wars against Greek City States 499 BCE) Seleucid, Parthian, and Sassanid Buffer states for Rome and Kushan Incorporated into the Islamic Empires beginning in 651 CE Foundations of Safavid Dynasty

Shah Abbas Ancient Rome Archaic Period - Rome built 753 BCE Roman Republic Tensions between Plebeians (lower class) and Patrician (upper class) called struggle of the orders Beginning of Roman expansion Punic Wars Three Campaigns against Carthage Rome was Victorious Began expanding to the East (Greece, Balkans) Collapse of Roman Republic Too Much expansion Caused Social Problems, Civil wars Solidification of Leadership under single hand Roman Empire Julius Caesar, Octavian (Caesar Agustus)

Han Dynasty Strongest and longest dynasty Expansionist Empire Weak Leadership caused collapse

Postal system Roads Defensive fortifications Corruption and leadership issues Had to protect the expanding borders some that encouraged trade along the silk road Silk road brought bandits that threatened the outer borders of the Han dynasty India Aryans Nomadic Group invaded India Earliest Europeans Conquered the Dravidians Established Warrior Aristocracy Established Sanskrit

Vedic Era and Early Hindu faith Caste System Priests (Brahmins) Warriors and Political Rulers (Kshatruyas) Commoners Servants and Peasants The Untouchables Born into Caste; Cannot be changed Classical India Mauryan Ashoka: famous Emperor Converted to Buddhism Collapsed from outside attacks

Laws of Manu Gupta Empire Empire Religious toleration Muslim invaders Social system Importance of the Brahmans and the caste system to Indian development.

In India, despite the achievements of the Maurya, Kushana, and Gupta empires, a division into many petty states governed by the Aryan warrior elite was most common. The duration of empires was relatively brief. Conversely, Indian social organization, although it became more complex and rigid as time passed, was constant throughout the classical period. The Brahmans enjoyed both social dominance and religious authority; they were one of the highest castes and were monopolists of the rituals associated with the Vedas. Except for the Maurya empire under Asoka, governments accepted the social position of the Brahmans and patronized their religious authority. Classical China vs. Classical India

India was more open to contact and invasion and less internally coherent than China as the Middle Kingdom (interior mountains etc), which helps explain the differences in openness to influence, political stability Ethnocentrism and Xenophobia develops in China Different regard for merchants and specific contrasts in the definition and function of "mean people" in China versus untouchables in India Dharma encouraged merchants in Gupta Merchants brought outside cultures and were not socially accepted in China Role of Women in Classical Han and Gupta Both cultures were characterized by extensive inequality and patriarchy; differences existed in social organization and tone of patriarchal culture.

India showed more emphasis on beauty, cleverness, and sexuality in women, while China displayed a more stereotypical emphasis on female deference. Environmental Determinism India was more open to contact and invasion and less internally coherent than the Middle Kingdom (interior mountains etc), which helps explain the differences in openness to influence, and political stability India absorbed other cultures while China remains ethnically homogeneous (90 % of all Chinese trace their ancestry back to the Han dynasty) Regionalized to Unified

Harappan and Chinese civilization. Consider their agricultural systems, religious practices, and political organization. Both agricultural systems were based on irrigation; the Harappans grew wheat, rye, peas, and rice; the Chinese produced millet and silk. In religion the Harappans emphasized fertility rituals; they had a pantheon of gods, the most significant of which may have been a nude male deity with horns; there might have been ritual bathing. The early Chinese also were concerned with fertility and practiced human sacrifice; divination was practiced on animal bones. In political organization Harappan society was closely supervised from Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; a priestly elite probably ruled. The Chinese were governed through feudalism: decentralized under the Shang, centralized under the Zhou. Responses of Harappan and Chinese civilizations to contacts with outsiders and external migration. Harappan civilization was conservative, but it did have commercial contacts with foreigners; it was unable to withstand the migration of the Aryans. The Chinese were able to handle migration by absorbing invaders. The Zhou might replace the Shang, but the fundamental nature of Chinese civilization remained.

Silk Roads series of routes that connected east with west around the beginning of both Pax Romana and Pax Sinica gold and other precious metals, ivory, precious stones and glass, which was not manufactured in China until the fifth century furs, ceramics, jade, bronze objects, lacquer and iron most significant cultural exchange was Buddhism East Asia Political centralization under the Qin and Han dynasties. They include: the development of appropriate political philosophies; the contributions of Confucius and his disciples; other philosophies

(Daoism, Legalism); the institutionalism of the teachings of Confucius in the examination system; the rise and triumph of the shi; the destruction of regional states and the feudal aristocracy; the creation of a unified political infrastructure. Social organization of China under the Zhou and Han dynasties. Zhou China was based upon the existence of a regional aristocracy that governed as feudal vassals; the aristocracy were often members of the royal family and more closely controlled by the dynasty than under the earlier Shang rulers. Beneath the warriors were the peasantry and artisans. Han China was ruled by the imperial family and the shi who evolved into the scholar-gentry. The peasantry was divided into those with land and those without who served as agricultural laborers; artisans were growing in numbers; merchants were becoming wealthy but remained with low social status. The clear difference between the Zhou and Han was the replacement of the feudal aristocracy by the scholar-gentry and the growing importance of artisans and merchants. Comparisons of Classical Civilizations Roman and Han

Similarities include timeframe and chronologies; Differences helping to explain Rome's earlier demise cultural support for imperialism despite law, no equivalent to Confucianism; more tolerance of local rule; more dependence on expansion for labor supply, etc. Also, Rome suffered some bad luck, perhaps, in the form of invasions Greek and Roman political structures Similarities

emphasis on aristocratic principles with some democratic elements, localism, and city-state units Differences geographical extent, the need to integrate large territories, the use of some central bureaucracy, and the army. Rome had more emphasis on unifying laws and more success in developing institutions for empire Greek, Roman, and Confucian ideals.

All three share common political emphases such as the importance of loyalty, service, and hierarchy. Greek and Roman ideals were more aristocratic, though, where Confucian ideals stressed training and responsibility, Confucianism focused more on political order and imperial hierarchy. Greece and Rome were similar to each other, but Rome emphasized law and experienced tension between local and imperial orientations from late Republic onward as a result. Spice Trade during Roman Times Decline of Classical Empires Han and Rome exhibited different degrees of political centralization and bureaucratization and different degrees of prior cultural integration. Rome faced more invasions and you need to note the success of "eastern Rome" [Byzantium] Outside factors

Invasions by pastoralists disease Internal problems of morale political structure economics Religions Universal Ethnic Syncretic State Animism

Pagan Classification Three universal religions Three Monotheistic Christianity Buddhism Islam Judaism

Christianity Islam Cultural/ethnic belief systems Confucianism Judaism Shintoism Religions JUDAISM (8000 6000 BCE) Monotheism represented a significant departure from polytheism in its concept of ethics and ideas of justice and in the extent to which the world was viewed as orderly. CHRISTIANITY

Paul Changed Christianity Among other innovations, he opened the faith to nonJews and shifted its orientation more toward the GrecoRoman intellectual tradition Influence of Christianity in the Development of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West Divisions 1054 - Split into eastern and western later to become "Roman Catholic" and "Eastern Orthodox" churches 1517- Protestant Reformation created by Luther, Henry VIII and Calvin; to become Protestant churches and creating wars throughout Europe Spread of Christianity Southwestern Asian Religions Judaism (8000 6000 BCE) Monotheism represented a significant departure from polytheism in its concept of ethics and ideas of justice and in the extent to which the world was viewed as orderly.

Christianity, 1st century CE Paul Changed Christianity Among other innovations, he opened the faith to non-Jews and shifted its orientation more toward the Greco-Roman intellectual tradition Influence of Christianity in the Development of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West Divisions 1054 - Split into eastern and western later to become "Roman Catholic" and "Eastern Orthodox" churches 1517- Protestant Reformation created by Luther, Henry VIII and Calvin; to become Protestant churches and creating wars throughout Europe Eastern Religions

Hinduism (2000 BCE) Brahmin, Multiple Gods, Dharma (Obligation to pursue assigned duties in life, according to caste) , Karma, Reincarnation Buddhism (500 BCE) 4 Noble truths 8 fold path Nirvana - concept of union with divine essence Theravada Buddhism (sometimes called Southern Buddhism; occasionally spelled Theravada) "has been the dominant school of Buddhism in most of Southeast Asia since the thirteenth century, with the establishment of the monarchies in Thailand, Burma, Cambodia and Laos." Mahayana Buddhism (sometimes called Northern Buddhism) is largely found in China, Japan, Korea, Tibet and Mongolia. Tibetan Buddhism, which developed in isolation from Theravada and Mahayana

Buddhism because of the isolation of Tibet. Since the late 19th century: Modern (Zen) Buddhism has emerged as a truly international movement. It started as an attempt to produce a single form of Buddhism, without local accretions, that all Buddhists could embrace. Daoism (Taoism) 500 BCE) Lao Tu (Zu) The Way Harmony with Nature State religion began an ended with Chin dynasty ca. 200 BCE Confucianism: religion or state control K'ung Fu (551 BCE) - State religion by Han dynasty around 206 CE Obedience (ritual, filial piety, loyalty, humaneness, gentleman)

At first not accepted Si Shu or Four Books: The Lun Yu the Analects of Confucius The Chung Yung or the Doctrine of the Mean The Ta Hsueh or the Great Learning The Meng Tzu the writings of Meng Tzu (371-289 BCE) a philosopher who, like Confucius, traveled from state to state conversing with the government rulers Wu Jing or Five Classics: Shu Ching or Classic of History: writings and speeches from ancient Chinese rulers The Shih Ching or Classic of Odes: 300 poems and songs The I Ching or Classic

of Changes: the description of a divinatory system involving 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams are symbols composed of broken and continuous lines; one is selected to foretell the future based on the casting of 49 sticks. The Ch'un Ch'iu or Spring and Autumn Annals: a history of the state of Lu from 722 to 484 BCE. The Li Ching or Classic of Rites: a group of three books on the LI the rites of propriety Controls 4 stages of life Adopted by the elite class, literacy an issue peasantry needed religious beliefs more tied to agricultural issues and cycles the lack of spirituality in Confucianism Added filial piety Classic books Li: includes ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc. Hsiao: love within the family: love of parents for their children and of children for their parents

Yi: righteousness Xin: honesty and trustworthiness Jen: benevolence, humaneness towards others; the highest Confucian virtue Chung: loyalty to the state, etc. Birth, maturity, marriage, death First class developed known as shi (knights) later civil service exams and scholars or scholarly gentry Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism in China Buddhism adapted to Chinese political and patriarchal traditions. Chinese Buddhists also tended to worship the Buddha and placed more emphasis on saintly intermediaries than believers elsewhere. Confucianism emphasized order, hierarchy, and deference, including specific injunctions to obey the emperor. Daoism emphasizes balance and harmony

Confucianism's good life stressed the need for order, hierarchy, and mutuality within hierarchy. Ancestor worship encouraged a conservative political outlook because it encouraged veneration of past achievements and the idea that innovation might displease China was able to support two systems of Dao and Confucianism and later was able to incorporate Buddhism as it adapted to the Chinese traditions NeoConfucianism Tried to blend Buddhists and Taoist secular ideas into the political ideas of Confucianism

Began about 1000 CE During periods of Confucian hegemony like Song, Ming and Qing dynasties, it can be identified roughly with the social class of government officials. Manchu or Qing tried to use it to stay in power and tried to remove the Buddhist contamination Monks, Monasteries and Pilgrims Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and later Islam spread due to increased contacts due to trade, missionary work, travel and conquest. At the point where religions meet in Asia was also the place of great wealth because merchants

increased their wealth and also changed their religion often attributing their success to the new religion. Buddhism in Asia Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture & Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE, & the Islamic conquests of the 7th century CE. One of the first

representations of the Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara: Standing Buddha Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living Syncretic Religions Sikhism Jainism Afro-Caribbean Syncretic

Ivory Coast blend of Islam and Catholicism Candomble Palo Mayombe Santeria (Lukumi, Regla de Ocha) Vodoun (Voodoo) Umbanda Harrism Zoroasticism Social or Political? The Caste system seems to have emerged as a means of organizing relations between Indo-European conquerors and indigenous people and was preserved by strict rules of

occupation and Hindu beliefs in dharma and reincarnation. Political control Hinduism and Confucianism Both very structured Had otherworldly and secular goals China's greater emphasis on political structures as compared to India's more varied and diverse political experience. Environmental determinism Confucianism and the bureaucratic structure helped hold

the Han empire together Rome had no equivalent and did not support Christianity until it had already split Byzantine may have survived because of the religious structure adopted by the post Justinian Emperors and the adaptation of Christianity into a more Orthodox religion (structured) State Religion Shinto State religion of Japan (becomes state religion during Meiji period. Church and state separated after WWII "Shinto gods" are called kami. They are sacred spirits which take the form of things and concepts important to life, such as wind, rain, mountains,

trees, rivers and fertility. Humans become kami after they die and are revered by their families as ancestral kami No absolutes 600 CE - 1450 CE Intensified Hemispheric Interactions Buzzwords Southernization A process called southernization first began in Southern Asia. By the fifth century C.E., developments associated with southernization were present in India, whence they

spread to China and then to the Middle East and the Mediterranean basin. After 1200 they began to have an impact on southern Europe. These developments included the discovery of bullion sources, the emergence of a new mathematics, the pioneering of trade routes, the trade in tropical spices, the cultivation of southern crops such as sugar and cotton, and the invention of various technologies. Early Developments Older belief systems, such as Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism, and Buddhism, came to become more important than political organizations in defining many areas of the world. Great technical advancement, increased agricultural

surplus which promoted new crafts that were traded throughout the world. Internal stability contributed to increased trade accompanied by urbanization. Led to hegemonic zones connected to tributary zones. Social organization of Arabs before Islam Based on kin-related clan groups typical of nomadic pastoralists grouped into larger tribal units, but seldom lived together wealth and status based on possession of animals, pasturage and water rights slavery utilized common incidence of feuds Appeal of Islam

Universal elements in Islam: unique form of monotheism appealed to other monotheistic traditions Egalitarianism legal codes strong sense of community in the ummah; Muhammad's willingness to accept validity of earlier Judaic and Christian revelations appeal of "five pillars" of faith. Caliphates Split in Islamic believers after the death of Muhammad

Sunni and Shiite Caliph - leader of the Islamic faith Umayyad Caliphate 661-750 Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258 Golden age of Islamic Culture 1350-1918: Ottoman Empire 1501-1723: Safavid Empire Growth of Dar Al-Islam or Islamic World

Umayyads control Arabian peninsula, across North Africa into the Iberian Peninsula Abbasids Harun Al-Rashid high point Showed no special favor to Arab military aristocracy No longer conquering, but the empire still grew

Abbasid administration Relied heavily on Persian techniques of statecraft Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad Appointed governors to rule provinces Ulama ("people with religious knowledge") and qadis (judges) ruled locally Harun al-Rashid (786-809 C.E.), high point of Abbasid dynasty Abbasid decline Struggle for succession between Harun's sons led to civil war Governors built their own power bases Popular uprisings and peasant rebellions weakened the dynasty A Persian noble seized control of Baghdad in 945 Later, the Saljuq Turks controlled the imperial family Differences between Umayyad & Abbasid Caliphates Both were essentially absolutist in structure, but the

Abbasids introduced greater formalism and a more rigorous bureaucratic structure featuring the wazirs Abbasid dynasty originally based on claims of descent from family of the Prophet (Shi'a), but eventually moved to suppress Shi'ite movements Abbasids incorporated mawali or non-Arab converts into full citizenship and participation Shift of center of empire from Damascus in Syria to capital at Baghdad in Persia Spread of Islam Incursion of Islam into Southeast Asia almost entirely as a result of establishment of trade

routes from Muslim ports in India Sufi mystics and traders carried Islam to port cities within Southeast Asia from port cities Islam disseminated to other regions because of Indian and Sufi background, less rigorous emphasis on strict interpretation of texts and laws more incorporation of indigenous religious beliefs. Arab role of women vs. Muslim role of women Arab

Based on kin-related clan groups typical of nomadic pastoralists; grouped into larger tribal units, but seldom lived together; wealth and status based on possession of animals, pasturage and water rights; slavery utilized; common incidence of feuds. Women in pre-Islamic culture enjoyed greater liberty than those of Byzantium or Persia; played important economic roles; in some clans descent was matrilineal; not secluded; in some clans both males and females allowed multiple marriages. Islamic- Abbasid Empire:

under influence of Persian culture, women veiled and secluded increase in patriarchal authority only males permitted multiple marriages development of the harem Tang China Restoration of imperial government implied strengthening of traditional schools of Confucianism and resuscitation of scholar-gentry Confucians attacked Buddhism as a foreign innovation in China Convinced emperors that monastic control of land represented an economic threat Persecution of Buddhists introduced in 840s.

East Asia Era of Division: Sui-Tang: return to centralized administration, unified empire dominated by political division among many small warring states often ruled by nomadic invaders period of Buddhist dominance

growth of monastic movement loss of imperial centralization loss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracy. reconstruction of bureaucracy reconstruction of Confucian scholar-gentry at expense of both Buddhists and aristocracy restoration of Confucianism as central ideology of state. cultural diffusion to JAPAN elements of Tang-Song economic prosperity to 1250 CE The full incorporation of southern China into the economy as a major foodproducing region, center of trade; commercial expansion with West, southern Asia, southeast Asia establishment of Chinese merchant marine development of new commercial organization and credit per acre expanded urbanization throughout China. Satellite Cultures of China

Why was China unable to assimilate the Vietnamese despite direct rule for almost a millennium? Vietnamese culturally different from the outset: Chinese able to exert some influence: different language, tradition of local authority inherent in village leaders, emphasis on nuclear family rather than typically Chinese extended families, higher status accorded to women; introduction of central administration based on Confucian exam system, some

introduction of extended family and ancestor worship, use of Chinese military organization; ultimate failure based on inability to impact Vietnamese peasantry who remained significant on local level only Buddhism impacted peasantry. Chinese culture in relation to its satellite civilizations Chinese culture extended only within semi-closed East Asian cultural system unlike Islam that spread from the Middle East to Africa and to South and Southeast Asia unlike common cultural exchanges between Islam and post-classical West East Asian cultural exchange occurred in semi-isolation from other global cultures. Japan Feudal Japan between the Gempei wars and the Tokugawa

Shogunate Gempei wars marked dominance of provincial military aristocracy over imperial court Minamoto family established first dominance with military government or Bakufu at Kamakura decline of central administration and scholar-gentry; Hojo family dominated Bakufu finally Kamakura government overthrown by Ashikaga Shogunate all central authority dissipated during Onin War from 1467-1477 country divided up into 300 small kingdoms ruled by daimyos. Introduction of Portuguese in 1400s East to West Europe

civilizations in both halves of Europe moved northward typified by spread of monotheism over animism; northern political units were less complex and well organized than Mediterranean core civilizations all new regions recognized Greco-Roman past and Christianity. Differences: different versions of Christianity in East and West; little commercial connection between eastern and western Europe eastern Europe more politically advanced than western Europe eastern Europe more direct heir of Roman Empire. Europe Use of primogeniture begins in the 10th century which decreases the number of monarchs but increases the size of their territory giving rise to

empires. Large trading regions such as Hanseatic League which eventually form into the interregional Trading Companies which fuel the Age of Exploration 100 years war settles the questions in Western Europe and new empires emerge Conquest of England by Normans creates first a feudal relationship then a centralized system Middle Ages Collapse of Roman Empire led to fragmented leadership in Europe and the rise of the Byzantine Empire Emperor Justinian Constantinople Feudalism & reciprocity between lords and serfs

Manorialism Self-Sufficient Serfdom Great Schism Catholic Church gains much power Split between the Western Church and Byzantine Church Monasticism Monastery orders dedicated to service of god Vows of Chastity, Poverty Political and Economic Structure Manorialism: (economic) Feudalism: (social & political)

system that described economic and political relationships between landlords and peasant laborers. Serfs received protection and justice from lords in return for labor and portion of produce. series of relationships between members of military elite; greater lords provided protection and land to vassals in return for military service and loyalty. Manorialism provided context for local community life, regionalized and local forms of government; relationships among landlords led to building political blocks of power beyond local government. European Relationships 100 years war England and France Caused by political entanglements Frances attempt to regain English Territory

Trade competition Holy Roman Empire Spain and Portugal Muslim invasion Reconquesta Power of European Monarchs Evolved Development of small national armies Growth of trained bureaucracies

Ability to tax Centralization of legal codes and court systems. Church could excommunicate kings, limit power of courts Aristocrats demanded reciprocal authority structure Parliaments created in thirteenth century, institutionalized principle of consultation, gained right to approve taxation. Most important path to power is control of the purse strings 19th century: right to vote (suffrage) expands to lower classes, gives the right to change 20th century: women gain suffrage Byzantine Political Structure Emperor held all power viewed as divinely ordained ruler supported by elaborate court ritual

government in hands of trained bureaucracy with eunuchs in positions closest to the emperors local administrators appointed by central bureaucracy military recruited from empire's population by grants of heritable land in return for military service growth of authority of local military commanders at expense of traditional aristocracy. Byzantine and tributaries Caesaropapism, Justinian's Code, Constantinople Connections to Kievan Rus (Rurik, Vladimir, Cyril and Methodius, Yaroslav the Wise and Pravda Ruskia or law code) Crusades(1096 - 1295)

Causes Religious fervor European Desire for Trade Personal Ambitions Prejudice First Crusade Byzantine Empire asked for help against the Seljuk Turks Exaggerated atrocities Christians take Jerusalem More crusades: none successful Effects of the Crusades More awareness of the World as a whole Trade routes established through northern Italy New banking systems created Merchant families of Italian city states grow in power Increased tensions between Muslims and Christians Amerindian Civilizations

Olmec Mother civilization for Central America Maya Teotihuacan Located in Mexico and Central America Religion included Sacrifice Ended from War Inca Located along the Andes Mountains of Peru Specially adapted to high altitudes Domesticated Llama Aztec Tribute System Aztecs

Society At top was emperor who was held to be semi-divine; nobility or pipiltin developed after early conquest, separated themselves from clan groups (calpulli), associated with priesthood and military; large mass of commoners groups in calpulli, land distributed by clan heads, provided tribute, labor to temples; class of serfs associated with lands of nobility; scribes, artisans, healers; long-distance merchants (pochteca). Aztecs continue the culture of the classical Mesoamerican civilization and the Toltecs Toltecs considered givers of civilization; shared same language; use of human sacrifice; establishment of empire centered on central Mexico; militarism of society; concept of nobility tied to Toltec lineage initially; use of city-state organization; temple complexes associated with state; many deities of pantheon of gods (Tlaloc, Quetzalcoatl); tribute based on sedentary agricultural system; cyclical view of history and calendar system. Human Sacrifice It was greatly exaggerated by the Spanish as a means of validating European conquest and cultural superiority; it was a religious act essential to the grant of rain, sun, and other blessings of the gods; it was an intentional use of a widespread practice to terrorize their neighbors and to keep the lower classes subordinate;

it was a form of population control to lower population density; it was a response to a lack of protein and the absence of large mammals associated with animal sacrifice. Incas and Aztec Empires Political Structures Similarities: each had emperor supported by nobility that served as personnel of state; both based on tribute system with imperial redistribution of goods; both were militaristic; each recognized indigenous rulers in return for recognition of imperial sovereignty. Differences: Inca empire more integrated; Aztec empire based more on concept of city-states; Aztec empire more open to trade; Inca empire almost entirely relied on state redistribution of

goods; Aztec use of human sacrifice as weapon of political terror. Africa Gold and Salt trade route connecting first Ghana in 1st feudal era then Mali Almoravids, a Muslim group from northern Africa, conquered Ghana West African Empires: Ghana, Mali, Songhai Swahili coast and slave trade by the end of the era Trans-Saharan Gold-Salt Trade Southwestern Asia Persia conquered by Abbasids and rich new culture develops

Rubaiyat by Omar Khayyam Along the trade routes cosmopolitan areas emerged with new cultures and issues of trade Money changers banking Mongols push southward and create Mameluks in Egypt Seljuk Turks in North Africa and Arabian peninsula Mongols sack Baghdad, 1258 CE South Asia Mahmud of Ghazni in north his successors

migrate south and east and create Sultanate of Delhi around 1200 Chola kingdom (Hindu) to the south began to decline around 1200 Integration of civilizations Period of Push starts with conflict of nomads and sedentary peoples; ends with the positive impact of the greatest nomadic push that creates a conduit of exchange known as the Renaissance Mongols Territorial extent of the Mongol empire at its largest. How did this affect intercultural exchange? Mongol dynasty of China (the Yuan) attempt to alter the traditional Chinese

social structure Mongol empire extended from Russia and eastern Europe in west to Mesopotamia as far as Egypt in the south across the Caspian Sea region and the Asiatic steppes to include all of China. Mongol empire linked great global civilizations of Eastern Hemisphere western and eastern Europe, Islam, China; permitted free exchange of goods and ideas between global cultures along traditional routes of trade. By refusing to reinstate the Confucian examination system, the Yuan attempted to destroy the social and political dominance of the scholar-gentry; this attempt was seconded by dividing the Chinese social structure ethnically Mongols and Islamic allies on top, northern Chinese second, ethnic Chinese and minorities at bottom; in addition Mongols promoted social advance of artisans and merchants, who had been discriminated against in traditional Chinese society. Political impact of the Mongol conquests of Russia and the Islamic heartland similarities In both cases the traditional political structure was removed and the path was smoothed for new political organization to take place. In Russia, Kievan superiority was forever

destroyed and Moscow was able to achieve political dominance among the petty kingdoms through its control of tribute and by becoming the seat of Russian Orthodoxy. In Islam, the Abbasid dynasty was ended and the Seljuk Turks who had ruled through its appurtenances was devastated opening the way for the rise of the Mameluks in Egypt and the Ottoman Turks in Asia Minor. Silk Roads Black Death Bubonic Plague Traveled over the silk road Carried by fleas on rats Killed 1/3 of European population Killed almost as many in Asia, mostly east Asia

but percentage far less Caused society to modernize and gave more rights to the poor Smaller number of peasants and serfs actually increased their value Issues of Religion during Postclassical era Carolingians vs. Umayyads in Europe Battle of Tours Spread of Christianity throughout Europe and into Russia

Spread of Buddhism throughout East Asia into Japan and Southeast Asia Spread of Islam into Europe and throughout Asia Crusades Transregional Connections Major Phenomena (things that cause change)

Crusades Black Plague Mongols Hundred Years War Commercial Revolution that starts with the Neolithic Revolution Rise in population that is then influenced by the Plague Shift in routes from land to sea; set the stage for the overlapping trade zones and creation of new technologies in travel Diffusion of ideas & goods - "Southernization" Travelers like Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo Changes in European thought: Scholasticism vs. Humanism Increased trade and role of merchant, rise of trade guilds Urbanization across regions Venice and the Islamic World, 828 CE 1797 CE

A relationship over a thousand-year period focusing on artistic and cultural ideas that originated in the Near East and were channeled, absorbed, and elaborated in Venice, a city that represented a commercial, political, & diplomatic magnet on the Adriatic shores. Trade, travel, and cultural and diplomatic relations were the most important vehicles for the exchange of artistic ideas between Venice and her Muslim neighbors. Gentile Bellini (Italian, 1429?1507) Portrait of Sultan Mehmet II, Istanbul, dated November 25, 1480 Unit: 1450 - 1750 Beginnings of a Global Economy Buzzwords European Renaissance in Full Swing

Influence of Islamic World on Europe through Venice and Iberian Peninsula Influence of Chinese world through contact across Eurasia Questioning Spirit and Changes in University Curriculum Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg Classicism Greater Understanding and appreciation of Greek and Roman Culture Important people Da Vinci Michelangelo Titan

This 1511 Renaissance painting shows the reception of Venetian ambassadors in Damascus. Analyze for artistic techniques and subject matter. Fall of Byzantine Empire Series of external threat to empire Turkish invasions seized Asiatic portions of empire after 1071 Reduced food supplies and tax base of empire Growing economic and political power of western Europe led to inroads on Constantinople's economic position Western crusade in 1204 temporarily conquered Byzantine capital Rise of independent Slavic kingdoms in Balkans challenged Byzantine authority there Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.

European Exploration & Colonization Economic Motivation for Exploration Trade routes to Indies New Technology Diffused from Others Caravel Astrolabe Explorers Henry the Navigator Columbus & DaGama Magellan Treaty of Tordesillas Line World Divided by Pope for exploration & colonization

Colonization in the Americas Spanish Conquistadors Cortez- Aztec Pizzaro- Inca North and Portuguese colonization American Colonization French, English, Dutch, Spanish split North America Trying to find Northwest Passage

Patterns of Exploration Initial explorations in the hands of Spanish and Portuguese; development of African coast, Caribbean islands, Brazil Portuguese voyages to India Magellan's voyage opened up Pacific to exploration and conquest Dutch opened up Indonesia, established colony on southern tip of Africa British and French began exploration of North America. With exception of Dutch colony in Africa, most of early colonization limited to establishment of fortresses and trading posts on coasts of explored regions. Colombian Exchange

Exchange of Plants, Animals, Foods and Diseases between the Old and New Worlds. Horses, Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Pigs from the Old World Provided food, labor Squash, Beans, Sweet Potatoes, Peppers, Peanuts, Tomatoes to Old World Increased areas to grow Cotton, Sugar Cane, Tobacco and Cacao Became Luxury Goods for Old World Part of Massive Migration Movement between Old and New Worlds

Many nations began expansion into these newly discovered lands Colonization of New World New Spain Viceroyalties Three types of Conquest Microbial Economic Cultural and Spread of Christianity Economic issues Social Stratification

Mining and Sugar Production Encomienda & Repartimiento Systems Mita System Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Mulatto Portuguese in Brazil Major Sugar Cane Plantations Boom / Bust Economy Mercantilism There is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and you must maintain or increase your wealth to survive. To increase your wealth you can either take

from others or you can make something else out of what you have. Favorable import export ratio is important. You want to profit on your export. Coercive labor systems Indentured servitude African/Caribbean slavery Muslim slavery in N. Africa and Indian Ocean World Caste system in South Asia Coercive Labor Systems

Encomienda (allotments of land granted that were hereditary and people on the land) Repartimiento (how the labor was distributed or the process of encomienda) Mita (labor extracted) Hacienda (Plantation system) Peonage (land farmed and crops shared with owners; similar to sharecropping in US) Indentured servitude (present but more prevalent in North America) Portuguese, the Dutch, and the French adopted similar systems Obruk and Barshchina in Russia Encomienda (Stage I)

from Span. encomendar=to entrust], system of tributary labor established in Spanish America. Developed as a means of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply, the encomienda was first used over the conquered Moors of Spain. Transplanted to the New World, it gave the conquistador control over the native populations by requiring them to pay tribute from their lands, which were granted to deserving subjects of the Spanish crown. The natives often rendered personal services as well. In return the grantee was theoretically obligated to protect his wards, to instruct them in the Christian faith, and to defend their right to use the land for their own subsistence. When first applied in the West Indies, this labor system wrought such hardship that the population was soon decimated. This resulted in efforts by the Spanish king and the Dominican order to suppress encomiendas, but the need of the conquerors to reward their supporters led to de facto recognition of the practice. The crown prevented the encomienda from becoming hereditary, and with the New Laws promulgated (1542) by Las Casas, the system gradually died out, to be replaced by the repartimiento, and finally debt peonage.

Similar systems of land and labor apportionment were adopted by other colonial powers, notably the Portuguese, the Dutch, and the French. Repartimiento (Stage II) Spanish colonial practice, usually, the distribution of indigenous people for forced labor. In a broader sense it referred to any official distribution of goods, property, services, & the like. From as early as 1499, deserving Spaniards were allotted pieces of land, receiving at the same time the native people living on them; these allotments known as encomiendas & the process was the repartimiento; the two words were often used interchangeably. Encomienda almost always accompanied by system of forced labor &

other assessments exacted from the indigenous people. The system endured and was the core of peonage in New Spain. The assessment of forced labor was called the mita (like a tax only in labor) in Peru and the cuatequil in Mexico. Peonage System of involuntary servitude based on the indebtedness of the laborer (the peon) to his creditor. It was prevalent in Spanish America, especially in Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, and Peru. The system arose because labor was needed to support agricultural, industrial, mining, and public works activities of conqueror and settler in the Americas.

With the Spanish Conquest of the West Indies, the encomienda establishing proprietary rights over the natives, was instituted. In 1542 the New Laws of Bartolem de Las Casas were promulgated, defining natives as free subjects of the king and prohibiting forced labor. Black slave labor and wage labor were substituted. Since the natives had no wage tradition and the amount paid was very small, the New Laws were largely ignored. To force natives to work, a system of the repartimiento [assessment] and the mita was adopted; it gave the state the right to force its citizens, upon payment of a wage, to perform work necessary for the state. In practice, this meant that the native spent about one fourth of a year in public employment, but the remaining three fourths he was free to cultivate his own fields and provide for his own needs. Abuses under the system were frequent and severe, but the repartimiento was far less harsh and coercive than the slavery of debt peonage that followed independence from Spain in 1821. Forced labor had not yet included the working of plantation cropssugar, cacao, cochineal, and indigo; their increasing value brought greater demand for labor control, and in the 19th cent. the cultivation of other crops on a large scale required a continuous and cheap labor supply. Slavery and the Atlantic Slave Trade

Slavery existed before but the Atlantic Trade was new Factors for Expansion of the Slave Trade Labor intensive crops (Sugar, Tobacco, Cotton) Slaves better suited to climate of new world Ending of Encomienda First controlled by Portuguese Middle Passage Trade Route from Africa to New World that carried Slaves Small ships, many casualties Triangular Trade Major route of World Ocean Trade Middle Passage was second leg Negative Interaction

On the whole, however, Africa suffered serious losses, both demographically and socially, European intervention The Atlantic slave trade deprived African societies of sixteen million or more individuals, in addition to perhaps another five million or more consumed by the continuing Islamic slave trade during the early modern era. The slave trade also distorted sex ratios, since most exported slaves were males. This preference for males had social implications for the lands that provided slaves. By the eighteenth century some African states responded to this sexual imbalance through polygamy, changes in subsistence patterns and changes in gendered economic roles. Trading companies Joint Stock Trading Companies which later got Royal Charters which gave them a monopoly on

trade. British, Dutch, French East Asia Trading Companies Raised armies and made laws in the areas they controlled economically Settlement Companies Hudson Bay Massachusetts Bay Colony Organization of the trade

Until 1630, the slave trade remained in the hands of the Portuguese. The Dutch and British began to export slaves to plantation colonies in the Americas after 1637. France did not become a major slave exporter until the eighteenth century. Europeans sent to coastal forts to manage the slave trade suffered extraordinary mortality rates from tropical diseases. For both Europeans and Africans, the slave trade proved deadly. European traders often dealt with African rulers who sought to monopolize the trade in slaves passing through their kingdoms. Both Europeans and indigenous peoples were active participants in the commerce, because it was possible to realize major profits. Risks, however, cut severely into profit margins. By the eighteenth century, British profits in slaving averaged between five and ten percent.

Global Network Emerges Silver trade involves Americas and China with Japanese and Europeans as the middlemen in trade of silver Mughal India only minimally involved; Ottoman Empire restricted trade to European enclaves in cities; Russia also remained outside system; outside of slave regions, Africa not involved. After 1600, India increasingly dominated by France and England; Eastern Europe brought into system as supplier of grain to West.

Global trade with Core & Peripheral Zones Core areas were those areas of the world economy typified by production of manufactured goods, control of shipping, monopoly of banking and commercial services. Core areas were located primarily in northwestern Europe Britain, France, and Holland. Dependent zones were regions typified by production of raw materials, supply of bullion, plantation agriculture of cash crops produced by coercive labor systems. Dependent zones surrounded the European core including southern and eastern Europe, Asia, and the colonial discoveries of the European explorers.

Age of Absolutism in Europe & Russia Absolute monarchies Nation states emerge from feudal societies Common languages develop National identity Strong, unlimited power of Monarch Rulers Bourbon Dynasty and Louis XIV Habsburg Dynasty and Maria Theresa Tudor Dynasty and Henry VIII & Elizabeth I Romanov Dynasty and Peter the Great Consolidate power by Undermining authority of aristocracy Build new cities Create bureaucratic positions Expand their empires

Protestant Reformation Failed Attempts at Roman Catholic Church Reform; Results in loss of unity of Christian Church in Western Europe and Religious Wars with separation of Church and State Martin Luther Protested indulgences Formed Lutheran Church John Calvin Pre-destination Anglican church Formed for political reasons against popes authority Counter-Reformation Council of Trent

Inquisition Ottoman empire (1289-1923) Founded by Osman Bey in 1289, who led Muslim religious warriors (ghazi); long decline after Suleyman Ottoman expansion into Byzantine empire

Seized city of Bursa, then into the Balkans Organized ghazi into formidable military machine Central role of the Janissaries (slave troops) Effective use of gunpowder in battles and sieges Mehmed the Conqueror (reigned 1451-1481) Captured Constantinople in 1453; it became Istanbul, the Ottoman capital Absolute monarchy; centralized state Expanded to Serbia, Greece, Albania; attacked Italy Suleyman the Magnificent (reigned 1520-1566) Sultan Selim the Grim (reigned 1512-1520) occupied Syria and Egypt Suleyman the Magnificent expanded into southwest Asia and central Europe Suleyman also built a navy powerful enough to challenge European fleets Mughal Empire

Babur (1523-1530), founder of Mughal ("Mongol") dynasty in India Central Asian Turkish adventurer invaded India in 1523, seized Delhi in 1526 By his death in 1530, Mughal empire embraced most of India, Muslim minority rule over a Hindu majority Akbar (reigned 1556-1605), a brilliant charismatic ruler Created a centralized, absolutist government Expanded to Gujurat, Bengal, and southern India Encouraged religious tolerance between Muslims and Hindus Developed a syncretic religion called "divine faith" Aurangzeb (1659-1707) Expanded the empire to almost the entire Indian subcontinent

Revoked policies of toleration: Hindus taxed, temples destroyed His rule troubled by religious tensions and hostility COLLAPSES with British colonization in 1857 Safavid Empire The Safavids, Turkish conquerors of Persia and Mesopotamia Founder Shah Ismail (reigned 1501-1524) claimed ancient Persian title of shah. Proclaimed Twelver Shiism the official religion; imposed it on Sunni population Followers known as qizilbash (or "Red Hats") Twelver Shiism

Traced origins to twelve ancient Shiite imams Ismail believed to be the twelfth, or "hidden," imam, or even an incarnation of Allah Battle of Chaldiran (1514) Sunni Ottomans persecuted Shiites within Ottoman empire Qizilbash considered firearms unmanly; were crushed by Ottomans at Chadiran Shah Abbas the Great (1588-1629) revitalized the Safavid empire

modernized military; sought European alliances against Ottomans new capital at Isfahan centralized administration COLLAPSES in 1723 Gunpowder Empires in Asia: Ottoman, Mughal, Safavid Decline of intellectual vigor accompanied disintegration of Abbasid Empire after Mongol attacks Emphasis shifted to religion and away from

philosophy and science Rise of Sufis Landlords seized control of land, reduced peasantry to serfdom Decline in state revenues from taxation Interest in international trade complicated by rise of the West Ming/Qing China Reaction to Mongols: Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Used Mongol foundations to build empire, last Chinese-run dynasty Classic debate within China Naval force & voyages of Zheng He fall prey to Confucian conservatism Qing (Manchu) Dynasty (1644 - 1911)

Established by Manchu from the North; benefits from New World crops and population growth with expansion of territory Chinese use a tribute system as a basis for trade and restrict access of foreign traders to Chinese markets, particularly by limiting them to specified ports under controls established by the central government. Under the Qianlong Emperor (1736-1795) the Western trading companies are limited to Canton (today, Guangdong) where they have contact only with officially designated Chinese firms, or hong. (This comes to be known as the "Canton System" under which the British chafe by the 1790s.) Japanese Shogunate Japanese feudalism Shogun Daimyo Samurai

Bushido Shogunates Kamakura and Ashikaga came before Most Famous is Tokugawa Shogunate Founded By Tokugawa Ieyasu Dictatorship, highly centralized government Confucian ideas Closed ports to trade caused isolation and selfsufficiency with a lack of modernization East Asian Exploration and Isolation (Xenophobic) Ming Chinese

Japanese Contact with West returned to use of Neo-Confucian philosophy as basis of culture restored position of scholar-gentry reinstituted examination system as basis of civil service. Early emperors attempted to curtail power of scholar-gentry abolished position of chief minister restricted imperial marriage to commoner families to reduce opportunity for court intrigue; number of eunuchs limited potential rivals to succession exiled to provinces

greatest economic reform was Zheng He voyages to distant markets. First step taken was persecution of Christians, then banning of Christianity in 1614 after 1616 foreign merchants limited to few ports by 1640s, only Dutch and Chinese admitted at Deshima in eighteenth century Neo-Confucian philosophy abandoned in favor of school of "National Learning" based on indigenous Japanese culture differed from Chinese in maintaining oversight of European technological developments. East meets West Three major manufacturing zones:

Arab producing carpets, tapestry, glass; Indian producing cotton textiles; China producing porcelain, paper, silks. No central control of system, no use of military force. Portuguese brought use of military force into system added new routes including route around Cape of Good Hope to Europe addition of new trading centers such as those at Goa, Ormuz, Batavia introduction of concept of sea power and military force introduction of Christianity, tribute kingdoms. Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Scientific Revolution Accelerated pace of scientific discovery Modern thinking on scientific reasoning and logic

Great thinkers of Scientific Revolution Sir Isaac Newton Galileo Enlightenment Emphasis on scientific method Faith in power of human reason Criticism of the Church to some extent Great Thinkers of the Enlightenment Locke, Voltaire Montesquieu, Rousseau Humanism vs. Enlightenment 1280's to late 1600s vs. 1650 to 1750's Humanism (Age of Questioning)

Emphasis on individual Classical works Centered in N. Italian city-states and traveled throughout world Elements include voluntary participation in civic affairs Spurred questioning attitude Renaissance & cultural advancements, a scientific revolution, age of exploration, Reformation Enlightenment (application of humanism) /Age of Reason Belief in human perfectibility Application of scientific discoveries to improvement of human condition; Reason was key to truth, while religion was afflicted with superstition; Changes in upbringing of children reduction of physical discipline, more

education, greater bonds of familial affection; Changes in economy reflected in mass consumerism; Greater technology applied to agriculture nitrogen-fixing crops, land drainage, improved stock-breeding, new tools such as seed drill, introduction of potato as major food crop; Growth of reading clubs, coffee houses, and popular entertainment. Voltaire as the father of Enlightenment Unit: 1750 to 1914 Political Revolution, Mechanization & the Masses, and Western Global Hegemony Buzzwords Cause and Effect

African Diaspora leads to racism and inequality in the Americas End of coercive labor systems with industrialization eventually leads to struggles between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat Trading companies lead to state ownership of colonies and later corporations Centralization of government using national armies and extensive bureaucracies undercutting the role of the aristocracy Questions of absolutism or constitutionality led to Enlightenment Enlightenment leads to reform or revolution Industrialization & the West Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions in England and Western Europe

Agricultural Revolution and Proto-Industrialization Prelude to Industrial Revolution Steam as the new source of power Factory and machines Railroads & Steamships as the new forms of transportation Industrial cities with environmental challenges Social consequences and attempts to resolve them Capitalism and Industrialization Adam Smith (New Economic Theory) Free Trade Invisible Hand Supply and demand

Pre-Conditions for Industrialization Land, Labor & Capital Inventions - Spinning Jenny, Water Frame Increased reliance on Coal Industrial Revolution Textile Industry Steam and Electricity Effects on Social Classes Middle Class benefits Poor working conditions

Causes and Impacts of Industrial Revolution Once the middle classes acquire universal manhood suffrage then the social question can be addressed Repressed classes Population increases beginning about 1730 related to Agricultural Revolution Socialism, Marxism & Communism Socialism

Economic Competition is inherently unfair Popular in France Marxism More radical form of socialism Proletariat, Bourgeoisie, Class Struggle Communism Same as Marxism only add world-wide revolutionary theories of Lenin Continuation of Atlantic Slave Trade

Between 1600 and 1870 some four million West Africans were imported to the Caribbean as slaves. By comparison, the North American mainland received some 460,000 Africans in the same period while Jamaica alone, for instance, received almost 750,000! This was due to high death rates and small birth rates among the Caribbean slave population at the time. New slaves from Africa had to be imported continuously. In Barbados, for instance, 387,000 slaves were imported but at the time of emancipation in 1834 there were only 81,000 to be freed. Caribbean slavery was different from any other form of slavery that has ever existed. It was the only time in history when there were societies with almost nine out of ten inhabitants being slaves, which was the situation on the sugar producing islands Centralized Slave States of Africa

Asante Dutch Benin more central Africa, not as influenced by Dutch, more by Asante Dahomey Swahili, Indian, Arabian on east coast produced gold and cloves Interior of Africa was fragmented until Zulu united in 1830s West Coast converted to Islam and the Hausa (later Nigeria) to the less rigid Sufism "Isms"

Absolutism vs. Nationalism Mercantilism vs. Capitalism (Adam Smith actually from 1700s) Proto-Industrialism and Industrialism (Industrialization) Liberalism, Radicalism, Conservatism, Reactionary Socialism & Marxism (Communism) From each according to his abilities; to each according to his needs Antithesis to Marxism is revisionism Idea that reform is better than revolution Old Imperialism vs. New imperialism (Post 1880), Colonialism Beginnings of Consumerism Rise of Feminism Victorian Reaction Evangelicalism Social Darwinism Transition The Scientific Revolution

prior advances, Copernicus, Galileo; Newtons rational, harmonious, predictable universe the laws of nature faith in scientific method The Enlightenment in Europe and America the laws of society: Locke the Philosophes faith in reason and progress (Voltaire) the Enlightened Despots

Political Revolutions after the beginnings of Industrial Revolution: American, French, Haitian, Mexican Revolutions contrasting causes and stages launch of global expectations of national sovereignty, self-government, liberty, justice, equality Debate over State of Nature Hobbes The "natural condition of mankind" is what would exist if there were no government, no civilization, no laws, and no

common power to restrain human nature. The state of nature is a "war of all against all," in which human beings constantly seek to destroy each other in an incessant pursuit for power. Life in the state of nature is "nasty, brutish and short." Locke people first lived in a state of anarchy in order to maintain stability they made a social contract in which they KEPT natural rights Evolution of Constitutional Monarchy Monarchy (Reform) Parliamentary Government

Formed Great Britain English Civil War Charles II Glorious Revolution Oliver Cromwell Restoration with Limits to Power of Ruler

William and Mary Hanover Dynasty institute use of ministers and prime minister By 1800 had developed principle of ministerial responsibility Political Spectrum Matching 1. moderate 2. radical 3. liberal 4. conservative 5. reactionary A. does not want to change existing conditions B. extremist who wants to turn back the clock C. wants far reaching

changes D. sides with one side or the other E. stresses individual rights Classic Revolutions Haitian Revolution-August 22, 1791 - 1804 Mexican Revolution -September 16, 1810 1821 2nd Revolution 1908 Greek Revolution - 1821 - 1829 French Revolution -1789-1799 American Revolution 1775-1781 Russian Revolution 1917-1921 Chinese Revolution 1911 1921 2nd Revolution and civil war 1949

French Revolution Causes of French Revolution (AIMS) Three Estates Wide social and economic gap Unfair taxes Growing Middle Class Influence of Enlightenment Ideas

Poor Leadership and financial Difficulties Third Estate forms National Assembly from the Estates General Sans-Culottes- Radical Peasants in Paris Phases of Revolution (Recipe for Revolution) Moderate Period 1789-1791: limited Power of church Land reform Radical Period 1792-1794: Beheadings, Jacobins Conservative backlash 1794-1799: directory Rise of Napoleon Revolutions in the Americas American Revolution Ending Colonial Ties to Great Britain

Haitian Revolution Slave Revolt Forms Republic Constitution Toussaint LOuverture Latin American Independence Creole Rebellion Simon Bolivar, Pedro I, Hidalgo, Morelos Latin America

Latin American wars of independence dominance of the military (Caudillos) abiding economic, social, and racial inequalities Periods of consolidation Mexico Father Miguel Hidalgo leads to the later populist movements of Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa in 20th century Brazil Jao and later Pedro II Argentina Jose de San Martin Venezuela Creole-led junta Bolivars Gran Columbia

European nation-building England became an industrial, urban culture Tens of thousands were guillotined in France Napoleon's Empirethe greatest since Romerose and fell Revolutions swept the capitals of Europe in the 19th century Russian serfs were freed Italy and Germany were created from a loose collection of city-states European powers divided and conquered Africa Scientific Socialism and Social Darwinism Impact of the Rise of the West

New Western imperialism in Africa and Asia Multiple motives and causes Consequences for both the colonized and the colonizers Direct and Indirect Rule Sun never sets.The Raj pre-Sepoy Revolt which becomes the Jewel in the Crown Migration of Zulu, Boers, and British Push Pull of Conservatism and Liberalism Chartism in England Universal Manhood Suffrage on rise Revolutions of 1848 1853 US Perry, black ships, Treaty of

Kanagawa Civil War in US Crimean War (Pan Slavism) Geopolitics: Balance of Power Congress of Vienna Post Napoleonic Wars Establish territorial boundaries Establish a balance of power Concert of Europe Maintain a balance of power React to Nationalism Unification of Italy (Red Shirts, Garibaldi, Cavour)

Unification of Germany (Bismarck, Zollverin, Junkers) Decline of the Ottoman Empire Decline of the British Empire 2nd phase of Industrial Revolution Steel, oil and chemicals Transportation and communication 19th Century Imperialism Causes Economic Factors Need for Raw Materials Opening Potential Markets Military Factors

New Weapons Coal Sources Social Factors Population Growth Making Fortunes Cultural Factors Conquer Inferior people Social Darwinism TOOLS of EMPIRE: steamboat, machine gun, quinine Imperialists World

Great Britain (Zulu Wars, Sepoy Revolt) India China/ SE Asia United States as an Imperial Power Hawaii & Pacific Islands Cuba & Philippines Panama China Scramble for Africa Africa Divided up between Imperial Powers Berlin Conference Little of original governments survive Japan resists Imperial take over Forms of Imperialist Control

France-direct rule England-indirect rule, protectorates Spheres of influence division of an area with some military control Protectorate local leader controlled by an outside European, basically a puppet Mandates legalized imperialism after World War I South and East Asia Settler Colonies vs. Tropical Dependencies

In true colonies small numbers of whites governed large populations of indigenous peoples resulted in permanent exploitation by Europeans in contested settler colonies, struggles between white settlers and indigenous peoples often resulted in balance South Africa was the earliest contested settler colony struggle with Zulus, British resolved in decolonization of Boers, supremacy over South African indigenous peoples, Bantus New Zealand Maoris suffered from entry of whites, but learned use of laws to gain balance of power, rights over land and resources Similar results in Hawaii. Enculturation Settler societies became carriers of culture as the indigenous cultures were not strong enough to resist European settlements in Canada, Australia and New Zealand

World wide population growth Enclosure movement and other technological innovations cause movement and change Steam engine World before WWI Latin American rebuilding

1830 1870 Struggles with federalism vs. regionalism Troubles in Governing - Caudillos as local leaders Constitutions Many dictatorships Economic Issues Boom/ Bust Economies Social and racial divisions Limited Modernization and Industrialization Mexico French Intervention, Maximillian, Napoleon III Benito Juarez Post-1870 with US and British intervention One crop economies Cacao, Coffee, Rubber Monroe Doctrine at turn of 19th century Mining Industries and Railroad Building Panama Canal Spanish-American War and Cuba Russia, Ottoman, Japan & China Czars

Loss of Crimean War & emancipation of serfs Attempts at industrialization lead to Russian Revolution of 1905 and Revolutions in 1917 Ottoman rise of military and Janissaries causes eventual disintegration of empire Take over by daimyos eventual creation of zaibatzu after Meiji Restoration Conflict with westernization & decline of Qing Open Door Policy and Reaction to West Chinese resistance to the West

Japan the Opium War anti-foreign rebellions: the Taiping & the Boxer the Chinese Republican Revolution of 1911 Treaty of Kanagawa (Perrys black ships) the Meiji Restoration New role of the military Desire for industrialization and need for steel economic and military modernization rise to world power Crushing defeats of Manchu China and Tsarist Russia

Decline of Qing China Opium war Opium used to end trade deficit between China and Great Britain First Opium War Taiping Rebellion Civil War in China

Many died Dowager Empress Cixi Treaty of Nanking - 5 ports open, Hong Kong Conservative, Oppressive, leader of Qing China Controlled Nephew on the throne, when he tried to reform she had him removed Boxer Rebellion Rebellion against foreigners in China Not successful Showed that foreign powers must rescue China (sphere of influence)

Meiji Restoration Japanese Modernization New Constitution based on US Parliament formed (Diet) Mostly an Oligarchy Zaibatsu State Sponsored businesses Industry and Private Enterprise Poor Working Conditions for Poor Increased

Urbanization Beginnings of Japanese expansionism Japanese Imperialism Sino-Japanese War Russo -Japanese War Japan wants part of China Trade Takes over Korea and trading port

Used U.S Open Door Policy to justify actions Caused by competition over Manchuria Surprise attack by Japanese on Russian positions Japan wins Begins to warn world of Japan's imperial leanings Asia for the Asians Prelude to WWI: NIMS Nationalism and development of nation-states Imperialism caused by the competition for raw materials and markets of the late Industrial Revolution Militarism and growth of national armies as empires

grew and had to protect colonial possessions System of alliances develop that create a climate for war Triple Entente Triple Alliance Remained throughout the 20th century 4th Estate: Power of the Press Spread of culture Media influenced foreign policy Spanish American War Crimean War

Taiping Rebellion Zulu Wars Emile Zola French journalist Dreyfus Affair Revealed degree of anti-semitism Fueled the fire of ethnocentrism coupled with nationalism Victorian Era

Sun Never Sets on the British Empire Cultural attitudes Rigid structure to prevent class mobility Rise in Middle Class Consumer culture Entertainment, parks, art on rise Conflict more between middle class and lower class because upper class kept out anyone else Womens role began to change Internationalization of sports: Olympics, Soccer Reflection of European culture

Art, in contradiction to the growth of science, seemed to glorify the irrational. Beginning with romanticism, artists sought to capture emotion rather than material reality. By 1900, painters began to portray objects abstractly. Composers experimented with atonal forms. Western art began to pull the culture of other civilizations into the maelstrom of creativity. Differences in approach between scientists and artists created a dichotomy in Western culture that was reflected in the institutionalization of science and the arts. By the end of the 19th century, Western culture failed to resolve the chasm between the rational and the irrational. Unit: 1914 to Present Systems of Mass Society & Technology

Key Vocabulary Africa: African national Congress Apartheid Bandung Conference Colonialism El Alamein Globalization League of Nations Mandate system Nonaligned nations Proxy Wars Third World United Nations Middle East: Al Qaeda Balfour Declaration El Alamein Globalization League of Nations Mandate system Militant Islam Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Terrorism Zionism United Nations Asia: All India Muslim League Asian Tigers Bandung Conference Battle of Midway Boxer Rebellion Cultural Revolution Great Leap Forward Guomindang Indian National Congress Kashmir Keiretsu Korean War Long March Newly industrialized economies (NIEs) Nonaligned nations Tiananmen Square Third World

Twenty-One Demands Viet Cong Viet Minh Vietnam War Key Vocabulary Europe: Alliance System Cold War Cultural imperialism European Union Fascism Globalization Great Depression Helsinki Accords Holocaust Imperialism Iron curtain Marshall Plan Militarism Multinational organizations Nationalism Nazism

Nongovernmental organizations North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Treaty of Versailles Warsaw Pact United States: Contras Dirty War Import-substitution industrialization Maquiladora North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) North Atlantic Treaty Organization Oligarquia Pearl harbor Proxy wars Sandinistas Truman Doctrine World Wars (1914-1945) Causes (NIMS) of WWI

Central Powers and Allies Warfare Competition between Empires Secret Alliances Tensions in the Balkans Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand Trench warfare on Western Front Naval Warfare and Submarines Treaty of Versailles: Wilsons 14 Points

Great Britain and France wanted Revenge War Guilt Clause Loss of Territory Disarmament Reparations World War II Axis and Allies Axis = Germany, Italy, Japan Allies = U.S., France, Great Britain, USSR Appeasement Policy (RASP) After number of aggressive moves Allies

continue to back down Japan Continues Expansion into Chinese Territory New Technology Aircraft Carriers/ Bombers Radar Atomic weapons WWII Continued Blitzkrieg Lightning War, used by German forces Germans took over all but Great Britain Battle of Britain

Japanese Aggression in Pacific Pearl Harbor Attack Turning Point 1942 Lost by Axis Blitz Midway El Alamein Stalingrad D-Day (June 6th 1944) Atomic Bombs on Japan Russian Revolution and Communism

Russian Revolutions 1917 World War I catalyst, abdication of czar Lenin & Bolsheviks establish Communist State After Lenins death Josef Stalin gains control Economic Reforms Five-Year Plans Emphasis on rapid industrialization Collectivization of agriculture Kulaks problems with land distribution Political Oppression Little Political freedoms Siberian Labor Camps Stalin sets up a totalitarian state

Rise Of Fascism German fascism Began as lack of confidence in Weimar Republic Against Communist Party which was also strong in Germany Anti-Semitic as well as other races (Gypsies) Italian fascism Appealed to veterans of WWI Extreme Nationalist/ Racial Prejudice Led by Benito Mussolini March on Rome leads to control of country Eventually allied with German Fascists Nazism Led by Adolf Hitler

Specific type of fascism Charismatic Leader Wrote Mein Kampf Last Chancellor of Weimar Republic Head of German Parliament, Reichstag Passed Enabling Act, Suspended Constitution gave Hitler power to Rule be decree Outlawed all political opposition Limited personal freedoms Began persecuting Jews and others Chinese Communism After Qing, China governed by Nationalist Party

Led by Sun Yat-Sen After Sun Yat-Sen dies Chang Kai-Shek takes over Chinese Communist Party Led by Mao Zedong Leads Revolution against nationalists Early Defeats lead to Long March Helped by distraction of Japanese Invasion Eventually Communists succeed and nationalists flee to Taiwan Genocide & War Crimes Rape of Nanking Comfort Women

Japanese troops storm city of Nanking, raping and killing civilians Women forced to serve as prostitutes for Japanese Soldiers Holocaust Systematic genocide of Jewish people and other ethnicities Called Final Solution Concentration Camps: Auschwitz Extermination Camps Gas Chambers: Zyclon B Cremation Chambers

Total of 12 Million Deaths: 6 Mil Jews, 6 Mil Non-Jews Human Rights Since the Enlightenment and emancipations/ abolitionist movements of 18th century, no discussion of human rights on world forum basis 1948, UN Declaration of Human Rights brought issue to world attention Genocides and human rights violations still proliferate: Cambodia, Rwanda, Darfur, the Disappeared throughout Latin America, China Cold War

Non Military aggression between Communist and Capitalist Countries Spread of Soviet influence and Control Eastern Europe falls to Soviet Control Violates Soviet promises at Yalta Conference Berlin Blockade and division of Berlin U.S containment policy Marshal Plan Formation of NATO/SEATO Arms Race Began after 1949 when Soviets detonated hydrogen bomb Nuclear proliferation: arms build-up, between US and USSR Korean War First

Test of Containment Policy 1950-1953 South Korea (Non-Communist) V. North Korea (Communist) U.S supports South Korea China and USSR support North Korea McArthur Brilliant general but arrogant Fired for not following orders War Ended at Original Line of Division Cold War 1950-1960s

Nikita Khrushchev gains power in USSR Space Race Soviets launch Sputnik in 1957 Cuban revolution Frightened US because USSR had first space rocket Fidel Castro makes Cuba a Communist country Communist Country 90 miles of coast of US

U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR JFK Bay of Pigs invasion: attempt to overthrow Castro As Result Nuclear weapons stationed in Cuba To try to destroy missiles could start nuclear war with USSR Kennedy blockades Cuba and Soviets back down Cold War 1960-1970 US lands on the Moon Split between Chinese Communist and Soviet Communist

Wins the Space race Mao disagrees with Soviet view of Socialism as well as the role of Comintern Border between two nations became more hostile Vietnam War French Indo-China Ho Chi Minh

Vietnam was controlled by French, but they were too weak to enforce it Leader of Communist Party in N. Vietnam U.S Supports French Claim and enters the War to help S. Vietnam Domino Theory U.S/ French Defeat End of Cold War Detente - General Relaxation of Tensions between Super Powers 1980s Soviets invade Afghanistan Threatened Oil Supply Damaged relations Olympic Games Boycotted US in Moscow in 1980 USSR in Los Angeles in 1984

USSR begins to collapse internally Mikhail Gorbachev leads USSR in 1985 Attempts reforms Perestroika (restructuring)= economic reforms Glasnost = Openness cultural liberation Berlin Wall is taken down in 1989 1991 Soviet Union collapses Patterns of Decolonization Wars fought to gain independence Education of Native peoples led to easier decolonization Ethnic and religious differences cause major issues for new countries Exploitation of Natural Resources

Sides taken in Cold War Post-War Middle East The region's importance as a supply of petroleum Contradiction between desire for modernization and Islamic tradition Destabilizing effect of the Arab/Israel Conflict Establishment Of Israel

Balfour Declaration in 1917 Expressed the need for a Jewish state Established as a state for displaced Jews after the Holocaust Great Britain administered Palestine as a mandate of the League of Nations First order of business for the United Nations after World War II: establishment of the State of Israel Displaced millions of Palestinian Arabs to neighboring nations Globalization, Stage Four The Little Tigers: Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan

Followed Japanese model of export-driven industry; rapid growth in 1980s By 1990s highly competitive; joined by Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia NAFTA (Mexico, US, Canada): North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement Globalism: Economic issues vs. cultural issues 1944 Bretton Woods International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1947

Foundations for United Nations 1944 and established in 1945 World Trade Organization formed in 1995 Trading blocs The European Union Begun in 1957 with six nations, now includes fifteen A common market, free trade, free travel within the Union Eleven members adopted a common currency, the Euro, in 1999 Expectations of a European Political Union eventually Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Cartel established in 1960 to raise global oil prices After Arab-Israeli war of 1973, OPEC placed embargo on oil to United States, Israel's ally Price of oil quadrupled from 1973 to 1975, triggered global recession Overproduction and dissension among members diminished influence, 1990s Regional trade associations formed to establish free-trade zones for member states Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967, five

members North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1993: United States, Canada, Mexico Age of Access Who has access to technology North South Divide Weapons Medical

Communication Luxury European East West divide called Elbe-Trieste Line Totalitarian regimes want to limit access Economic inequalities lead to conflict in areas such as the World Trade Organization (loans money to countries who cannot afford to pay back loans) and the International Monetary Fund Does it benefit those who have to help those who do not? Developed countries Lesser Developed countries Unable to Develop countries East-West divide of Europe (Elbe-Trieste Line) North South divide of world Industrialized vs. NonIndustrialized Nations Industrialized

nations conduct the most trading activity, the LDCs conduct the least: LDCs make up of the worlds nations but only accounts for 25% of world trade. DCs including North America, Europe and Japan accounts for 75% of trade. New Trend: blocs versus international trade Rise of India and China in world economy Maquiladoras Mexican manufacturing or export assembly plants

1 million people today Grew from about million in early 90s Low wages Low standards High cost of living in border towns Maquiladoras are owned by U.S., Japanese, and European countries Decreasing with trade barriers lowered in East Asian countries in particular, China Outsourcing Creates English speakers Instead of moving to this country and bringing

their culture they stay in their own country and begin to adopt other cultures Influence of International Conglomerates/Multi-national Corporations Microsoft MacDonalds and Starbucks Wal-mart Problems monopolies, cartels, oligopolies, corruption Americanization of world culture Humanitarian Efforts Non-governmental

Organizations Red Cross/Crescent Green peace Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch Doctors without Borders Connection between economics & demography Economic inequities and labor servitude Causes of poverty Inequities in resources and income separate rich and poor societies Attendant problems: malnutrition, environmental degradation

Legacy of colonialism: economic dependence Labor servitude increasing Slavery abolished worldwide by 1960s Millions still forced into bonded labor Child-labor servitude common in south and southeast Asia Trafficking of persons across international boundaries widespread Victims, mostly girls and women, lured with promises of work Often in sex industry; hugely profitable though criminal

Population pressures and environmental degradation Dramatic population increases in twentieth century Population increased from 500 million in 1650 to 2.5 billion in 1950 Asia and Africa experienced population explosion after WWII 5.5 billion people in 1994; perhaps 11.6 billion people in 2200 So far, food production has kept pace with population

growth Fertility rates have been falling for past twenty years Population: Carrying Capacity Scientists and citizens concerned about physical limits of the earth Dire predictions not borne by facts: prices have fallen, food has increased

Malthus fallacy of his theories is that he did not include the impact of technology (increase food production, build up etc) Environmental impact Urbanization and agricultural expansion threaten biodiversity Gas emissions, coal burning contribute to global warming In 1997 at Kyoto, 159 states met to cut carbon dioxide emissions Population control: a highly politicized issue Some developing nations charge racism when urged to limit population UN agencies have aided many countries with family-planning programs China's one-child policy has significantly reduced growth rate Other cultures still favor larger families, for example, India Population issues Migration from rural areas to urban areas

Urban sprawl 75% of population is urban Strain on services (mass transportation, garbage disposal) Mass tourism Spread of disease Migrant workers and issues of citizenship Demographic transition Issues of standard of living change with the

technological advancements and level of industrialization of a country Most industrialized have 0 or negative population growth, low birth rates Populations are older Problems occur because labor shortages begin to appear LDCs have high mortality rates, less access to medical care, large numbers of population under age of 20, high birth rates, Population growth in areas least able to adapt to the growth Life Expectancy Major Trends of the 20th Century Major Population Growth Rise of Consumer Society Social Activism- 1960s war protests, Darfur Terrorism

Arab/ Israeli conflict Western-targeted Changes in gender relations Rise of Mass Media/Computer Technology Television, film and radio as a source of information and entertainment Speed of technology Impact of break-up of USSR Political instability in Eastern Europe and Russia

Nationalism causing ethnic groups that were mostly Islamic to try to break away Coalitions formed with other Islamic groups Void of superpower to hold political structures together No checks for China and USA Recent Conflicts and Issues Gulf War Iraq invades Kuwait Bosnian War

Limiting production and testing of Nuclear Weapons Number of Small Arms increase Serbian aggression against Albanian and Bosnian minorities in Kosovo Weapons of Mass Destruction War breaks out between Iraq and US-UN coalition Guns, semi-automatic and automatic 9/11 attack of al-Qaeda on the World Trade Center

2002 attack on Afghanistan, dissolution of the Taliban, then their return in 2008 2003 Overthrow of Saddam Hussein/ the destruction of the Baathist Sunni rule of Iraq; Iraq War Which is best? Convergence and diversity and tolerance and interdependence OR Isolationism, self-sufficiency and ethnocentrism THE END Good Luck!

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