The Anglo-Saxon Period 449-1066 A. D. Label the numbered sections on the map of
Great Britain. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Scotland Northern Ireland Ireland Wales England
1. 2. 3. 4.
5. Anglo-Saxons English traditions and language owe something to each of the islands invaders. A. They were first invaded by Iberians, then by
the Celts, by the Romans, by the Angle-Saxons, by the Vikings, and by the Normans. B. Since the time of the Magna Carta (1215) England has been a democracy in theory. C. America is what it is today due to the influence of English parliamentary government, English literature, and the English language.
The Celts The Celts were first called the Brythons. - The religion of the Celts was a form of Animism they saw spirits everywhere. - These spirits controlled all aspects of existence.
Priests, called Druids, acted as intermediaries between the gods and the people. The Druids 1. Ritual dances 2. Human sacrifices
3. Stonehenge used for religious rites having to do with lunar and solar cycles (some people believe) Differences between Celtic myths and Anglo-Saxon Poetry Anglo-Saxon stories are mostly male-dominated.
However Celtic legends are full of strong women. Celtic myths are full of fantastic animals, passionate love affairs, and incredible adventures. They take place in enchanted lands where magic and the imagination rule. - Celtic legends created King Arthur-the embodiment of English values.
The Romans The Romans invaded in 55 B.C. led by Julius Caesar. They remained in this area for about 100 years. - Romans provided armies and organization that
prevented further serious invasion for some time. 1. Built a network of roads 2. Built a great defensive wall 73 miles long. 3. Christianity gradually took hold. 4. Provided armies that prevented further serious invasion
The Anglo-Saxons Invaded in the middle of the fifth century Angles and Saxons from Germany; Jutes from Denmark The language of the Anglo-Saxons became the dominant language in the land
Angles = Angles land = Engla land = England King Arthur The Celts put up a strong resistance before retreating into Wales
Arthur Welsh chieftain and heroic Celtic leader; Britains once and future king King Alfred of Wessex (Ruled 871-899) known as Alfred the Great, was responsible for
truly unifying England into a nation 1. Led the Anglo-Saxons against the invading Danes (fierce Vikings = pirates) 2. Christianitys re-emergence helped King Alfred succeed by creating a common set of morals. It also linked England to Europe through the language of Latin. 3. Anglo-Saxons fought to protect their people, their culture
and their church. 4. Started the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which was a running history of England until 1154. Sutton Hoo Suffolk, England Ship-grave containing:
Sword, gold, silver, bronze, coins, a helmet, buckles, serving vessels, and a harp Women in Anglo-Saxon Culture Inherited and held property Christianity offered opportunities for women to join religious
communities Abbesses women from noble families that were in charge of large double homes the included both a monastery and a nunnery Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxon life was dominated by the need to protect the clan and home against enemies. A. Anglo-Saxons were not barbarians but they were a warring people. B. The leader was responsible for law and order. He protected his people. *In return the people must be loyal to the leader.
(This is the only way fame, success, and even survival could be gained.) Anglo-Saxons Despite the growth of Christianity, the AngloSaxon religion remained strong. A. The Anglo-Saxon religion was concerned with ethics and earthly virtues such as bravery.
B. Important religious figures for the AngloSaxons: 1. Woden (Wednesday god of death, poetry, and magic. He helped humans communicate with spirits. Anglo-Saxons 2. Thunor- god of thunder and lightening. His
sign was the hammer and twisted cross. 3. Dragon protector of the treasure. It was both a personification of death and devourer and guardian of the grave mound. Anglo-Saxons Anglo-Saxon poets (bards) held an honored position in
society because they preserved heroic deeds in collective memory. A. Poetry was as important as fighting, hunting, farming, or loving. B. Non-Christian Anglo-Saxons, whose religion offered no hope of an afterlife, could only create a defense against death through poetry.
C. Communal halls were used for shelter, meetings, and entertainment. Anglo-Saxons End of the Age A. Edward the Conqueror, an Anglo-Saxon king, dies childless. Two men both claim the
throne: Harold of England and William of Normandy. B. William of Normandy defeats Harold at the Battle of Hastings in October of 1066 earning him the name of William the Conqueror. C. The Anglo-Saxon age is replaced by a ruling government of Normans.
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