Ancient Egypt - Welcome to Mr Groh's Webpage

Ancient Egypt - Welcome to Mr Groh's Webpage

Ancient Egypt The Gift of the Nile WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION? Neolithic Revolution What is a A group ofsociety?

people living together, dependent on

one another, is a society. There are no other requirements to make a society. We are not studying societies in class this year. We are studying civilizations. Civilizations are a society in an advanced state of social development. What do we mean when we say an advanced state of social development?

There are 5 Key Elements that make a society advanced enough to be considered a civilization. Centralized Government A person or group of people who

make and enforce laws in a society. What does Centralized mean? Power must be concentrated in a

central location and in the hands of a relatively small group of people. In the United States, power is centralized in Washington, DC in the hands of the President, Congress, the Supreme Court and their representatives. Organized

Religion A belief in some sort of higher being or beings. It must be organized, which means that there are specific rules and

requirements for worshipping. (Clockwise from upper left) Islam, Taoism, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Judaism Job Specialization and

Social Classes Job Specialization is when the members of a society have specific jobs to do and are not expected or required to do

every job necessary to survive. Social classes are ways in which people are divided based on

their social, economic, or educational status. Arts, Architecture, and Infrastructure Arts are a way that

a society expresses its values and beliefs in a creative way such as painting, dancing, or playing music. Architecture describes the ability of a society to design and build

large structures. Infrastructure are structures created by a government for the good of the common people, such as schools, roads, or parks.

Writin g A method of using symbols to keep records.

5 Key Elements of Civilization Centralized Government Organized Religion Job Specialization and Social Classes Arts, Architecture,

and Infrastructure Writing By the end of this presentations be sure to describe Egypts 5 parts of civilization Egyptian Timeline

Old Kingdom (2700-2150) Hieroglyphics and religion develop in Egypt pyramids built Middle Kingdom (20401786) extension of Egyptian control into Nubia

New Kingdom (1570-1075) militaristic - Hebrews enslaved mummification perfected Outline 1. Geography 2. Religion

Gods Pyramids Mummies 1 2 3 4 5 6

3. Government The Pharaoh 4. Daily Life 5. Middle Kingdom 6. New Kingdom

I. Geography River dominates Egyptian world/thought Surrounded by desert with occasional oasis Permits some trade Defense from invasion Contributes to feeling of safety

preserves artifacts 1 2 3 4 5 6 Egypt is the gift of the Nile -Herodotus 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

I. The Nile yearly flooding - no concern for soil depletion Predictable Irrigation systems Encourages Trade Communication

Political unity 1 2 3 4 5 6 I. The Nile 1 2 3 4 5 6 I. The Nile

1 2 3 4 5 6 I. The Nile I. The Nile Impact on religion divided life - living and dying. East (sunrise) is land of the living - cities, temples

West (sunset) is land of the dead - tombs 1 2 3 4 5 6 II. Religion Omnipresence of religion Polytheistic interaction with the natural environment shows interrelated gods and goddesses yearly rebirth of

Nile and daily rebirth of sun over 2000 gods Pharaoh as living god Afterlife Evolution of who has an afterlife Old vs. New Kingdom 1 2 3 4 5 6

II. Osiris God of the Dead - rebirth - and the weighing of the heart 1 2 3 4 5 6 II. Horus

Horus, god of balance and harmony maintained the natural order: the flow of the Nile and the fertility of the soil. 1 2 3 4 5 6 II. Early Pyramids Zozers stepped pyramid - similar to

Babylonian ziggurats 1 2 3 4 5 6 Why build Pyramids? Belief in the afterlife demanded: 1. Bodies be interred whole 2. Material goods for use in afterlife be present The need to protect the bodies demands

good burial tombs 1. First were mastabas 2. Then pyramids 3. Then later hidden tombs Mastaba II. Great Pyramid Tomb for Khufu

an almost perfect square (deviation .05%) Orientation is exactly North, South, East West 2,300,000 blocks, 500ft high 20 years to build Average block weighs 2.5 tons Some weigh 9 tons! 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu 1 2 3 4 5 6

Queen Pyramids in front 1 2 3 4 5 6 II. Mummies Not known when it started in Egypt Perfected by time of New Kingdom How to make a mummy: 70 steps 1) Removal of the brain through the nostrils 2) Removal of the intestines through an incision in the side 3) Sterilization

of the body and intestines 4) Treating, cleaning, dehydrating the intestines 5) Packing the body with natron (a natural dehydrating agent) and leaving for 40 days 6) Removal of the natron agent 7) Packing the limbs with clay or sand 8) Packing the body with linen (soaked in resin), myrrh and cinnamon 9) Treating the body with ointments and finally wrapping with a fine linen gauze, not less than 1000 square yards . 1 2 3 4 5 6

Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of heart, stomach, intestines and liver which were also treated 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mummy Inner coffin 1 2 3 4 5 6

Second inner coffin Second inner coffin lid 1 2 3 4 5 6 Funerary

Gifts Gift bearers Shawabti box Model boat 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6 III. The Pharaoh God-King - unlike Mesopotamia Temporal power owns all the land and people and what people posses law vs. Pharaoh's will irrigation

no city walls 1 2 3 4 5 6 III. The Pharaoh God-King - unlike Mesopotamia Religious direct descendant of the Sun god controls access to the afterlife

July-Sept, during floods life is controlled by the Pharaoh 365 day calendar. 1 2 3 4 5 6 III. Role played by size in Egyptian Artwork 1 2 3 4 5 6

IV. Daily Life in Egypt Cosmetics, cleanliness (bathe 3 times a day), shaved bodies, wigs main food is beer and bread Grow many crops: emmer, barley, flax, lentils, onion, beans, and millet common building made of sun-dried mud bricks

- up to three stories in height Four social classes - slaves on the bottom Most common job farming 1 2 3 4 5 6 IV. Farmers in Egypt 1 2 3 4 5 6

IV. Hieroglyphics Language is written without vowels Different pronunciations MNFR as Memphis SR as Osiris TTMS as either Thutmose, Thutmosis, Tatmusa or Atithmese

Who learns this writing style? 1 2 3 4 5 6 IV. Hieroglyphics Use in temples Rosetta Stone Napoleon

and Egyptology. 1 2 3 4 5 6 IV. Egyptian Artwork Stela (carved stone) Egyptian Farmers & animals Notice, all people drawn

from the side even when looking right at you! 1 2 3 4 5 6 V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE End of civil wars, farming and trade return move capital south to Upper Egypt (Thebes)

public improvements drain swamps, canal to Red Sea belief in afterlife expands to include common people tombs instead of pyramids better protection for mummies. 1 2 3 4 5 6

V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and reunited Egypt Known as the Empire period development of public and private

zones at temples. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ahmose I leading Egyptians against the Hyksos 1 2 3 4 5 6

VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE Characterized by a more militaristic and imperialistic nature incorporated chariot, bronze working, horses development of a professional army became a slave based economy fueled by war and expansion

1 2 3 4 5 6 VI. Threats to Tradition Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347 B.C.) introduced the worship of Aton, god of the sun disk, as the chief god and pursued his worship with enthusiasm.

Changed name to Akhenaten (It is well with Aton) He closed the temples of other gods and especially endeavored to lessen the power of Amon-Re and his priesthood at Thebes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 VI. Threats to Tradition

1355-1335 BCE Nefertiti Wife of Akhenaton the only pharaoh to even partially reject polytheism political move against priests of Amon-Re

moved capital to Amarna worshipped Aton, the sun disk royal inbreeding. 1 2 3 4 5 6 VI. Tutankhamen 1335-1325 BCE

(King Tut) child ruler ruled nine years, died at 18 young death meant burial in the tomb of a lesser person (noble) resulting in preservation 1 2 3 4 5 6

VI. Ramses II (1279-1213) greatest New Kingdom ruler military leader of Egypt expanded into southern Turkey built many monuments to himself last gasp of Egyptian power.

1 2 3 4 5 6 VI. Ramses II (1279-1213) 1 2 3 4 5 6 VI. Ramses II (1279-1213) 1 2 3 4 5 6

Why did it last so long? Ancient Egypt lasted for 3500 years due to factors in: Geography Politics Social structure Education Economy

Religion = Stability was goal and change slow and cautious

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