# Analyzing Algorithms and Problems

RAIK 283 Data Structures & Algorithms P, NP, and NP-Complete Dr. Ying Lu [email protected] 1 RAIK 283 Data Structures & Algorithms Giving credit where credit is due: Most of the lecture notes are based on slides created by Dr. Cusack and Dr. Leubke. I have modified them and added new slides

2 Tractability Some problems are intractable: as they grow large, we are unable to solve them in reasonable time What constitutes reasonable time? Standard working definition: polynomial time On an input of size n the worst-case running time is O(nk) for some constant k O(n2), O(n3), O(1), O(n lg n), O(2n), O(nn), O(n!) Polynomial time: O(n2), O(n3), O(1), O(n lg n)

Not in polynomial time: O(2n), O(nn), O(n!) 3 Polynomial-Time Algorithms Are some problems solvable in polynomial time? Of course: many algorithms weve studied provide polynomial-time solutions to some problems Are all problems solvable in polynomial time? No: Turings Halting Problem is not solvable by any computer, no matter how much time is given

Most problems that do not yield polynomial-time algorithms are either optimization or decision problems. 4 Optimization/Decision Problems Optimization Problems An optimization problem is one which asks, What is the optimal solution to problem X? Examples:

0-1 Knapsack Fractional Knapsack Minimum Spanning Tree Decision Problems An decision problem is one with yes/no answer Examples: Does a graph G have a MST of weight W? 5

Optimization/Decision Problems An optimization problem tries to find an optimal solution A decision problem tries to answer a yes/no question Many problems will have decision and optimization versions Eg: Traveling salesman problem optimization: find hamiltonian cycle of minimum weight decision: is there a hamiltonian cycle of weight k

Some problems are decidable, but intractable: as they grow large, we are unable to solve them in reasonable time Is there a polynomial-time algorithm that solves the problem? 6 The Class P P: the class of decision problems that have polynomial-time deterministic algorithms. That is, they are solvable in O(p(n)), where p(n) is a polynomial on n A deterministic algorithm is (essentially) one that always computes the correct answer Why polynomial? if not, very inefficient nice closure properties

the sum and composition of two polynomials are always polynomials too 7 Sample Problems in P Fractional Knapsack MST Sorting Others?

8 The class NP NP: the class of decision problems that are solvable in polynomial time on a nondeterministic machine (or with a nondeterministic algorithm) (A determinstic computer is what we know) A nondeterministic computer is one that can guess the right answer or solution Think of a nondeterministic computer as a parallel machine that can freely spawn an infinite number of processes Thus NP can also be thought of as the class of problems whose solutions can be verified in polynomial time

Note that NP stands for Nondeterministic Polynomial-time 9 Sample Problems in NP Fractional Knapsack MST Sorting Others? Hamiltonian Cycle (Traveling Salesman) Graph Coloring

Satisfiability (SAT) the problem of deciding whether a given Boolean formula is satisfiable 10 The Satisfiability (SAT) Problem Satisfiability (SAT): Given a Boolean expression on n variables, can we assign values such that the expression is TRUE? Ex: ((x1 x2) ((x1 x3) x4)) x2 Seems simple enough, but no known deterministic

polynomial time algorithm exists Easy to verify in polynomial time! 11 Example: CNF satisfiability This problem is in NP. Nondeterministic algorithm: Guess truth assignment Check assignment to see if it satisfies CNF formula

Example: (AB C ) (A B) ( B D F ) (F D) Truth assignments: ABCDEF 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 ... (how many more?)

Checking phase: (n) 12 Review: P And NP Summary P = set of problems that can be solved in polynomial time Examples: Fractional Knapsack, NP = set of problems for which a solution can be verified in polynomial time Examples: Fractional Knapsack,, Hamiltonian Cycle, CNF SAT, 3-CNF SAT

Clearly P NP Open question: Does P = NP? Most suspect not An August 2010 claim of proof that P NP, by Vinay Deolalikar, researcher at HP Labs, Palo Alto, has flaws 13 NP-complete problems A decision problem D is NP-complete iff 1. D NP 2. every problem in NP is polynomial-time reducible to D

Cooks theorem (1971): CNF-sat is NP-complete 14 Reduction A problem R can be reduced to another problem Q if any instance of R can be rephrased to an instance of Q, the solution to which provides a solution to the instance of R This rephrasing is called a transformation

Intuitively: If R reduces in polynomial time to Q, R is no harder to solve than Q Example: lcm(m, n) = m * n / gcd(m, n), lcm(m,n) problem is reduced to gcd(m, n) problem 15 NP-Hard and NP-Complete If R is polynomial-time reducible to Q, we denote this R p Q

Definition of NP-Hard and NP-Complete: If all problems R NP are polynomial-time reducible to Q, then Q is NP-Hard We say Q is NP-Complete if Q is NP-Hard and Q NP If R p Q and R is NP-Hard, Q is also NP-Hard (why?) 16 Practical Implication Given a problem that is known to be NP-Complete

Try to solve it by designing a polynomial-time algorithm? Prove P=NP Alleviate the intractability of such problems To make some large instances of the problem solvable (like solving some instances of Knapsack problem in polynomial time) To find good approximations (Chap 12) 17 Appendix

The following slides are from a document by Dr. Robins, University of Virginia 18 19 20

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