Adams, "Primitive Thisness and Primitive Identity"
Adams, Primitive Thisness and Primitive Identity Is the world and are all possible worlds constituted by purely qualitative facts, or does thisness hold a place beside suchness as a fundamental feature of reality? (p. 172a) Adamss argument will be that thisness is an essential feature of the world and that no purely qualitative facts, suchnesses, are sufficient to individuate an object. Moderate haecceitism (p. 182b) 1 Thisness and Suchness
A thisness is the property of being identical with a certain particular individual (p. 172b) A property is purely qualitative a suchness if and only if it could be expressed, in a language sufficiently rich, without the aid of such referential devices as proper names, proper adjectives and verbs (such as Leibnizian and pegasizes), indexical expressions, and referential uses of definite descriptions. (p. 173a) All the properties that are, in certain senses, general (capable of being possessed by different individuals) and nonrelational are suchnesses. (p. 173b)
Three Conditions for a suchness: 1) 2) 3) It is not a thisness and is not equivalent to one. It is not a property of being related in one way or another to one or more particular individuals (or to their thisnesses). A basic suchness is not a property of being identical with or related in one way or another to an extensionally defined set
that has an individual among its members, or among its members members, or among its members members members, etc. (173b) 2 The Leibnizian Position The Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles can be defined in versions of increasing strength. No two distinct individuals can share 1) all their properties, or 2) all their suchnesses, or 3) all their nonrelational suchnesses.
We will concern ourselves with 2 or 3. Note: Leibnizs PII is only interesting if it is considered to be a necessary principle. Now, if it is possible for there to be distinct but qualitatively indiscernible individuals, it is possible for there to be individuals whose thisnesses are both distinct from all suchnesses and necessarily equivalent to no suchness. (p. 176a) 5 Primitive Trans-world Identity
Issues of modality de re turn on identity questions. To say that a certain individual is only contingently a parent, but necessarily an animal, for example, is to say that there could have been a nonparent, but not a non-animal, that would have been the same individual as that one Whether modality de re really adds anything important to the stock of modal facts depends, I think, on whether there are transworld identities or non-identities [I]f we are prepared to accept nonqualitative thisnesses, we have a very plausible argument for primitive Transworld identities and non-identities. (p. 179a)
[I]n the case of transworld identity in particular, I think that primitive identities are much more plausible if nonqualitative thisnesses are accepted than if they are rejected. (180a) Ifwe reject the Identity of Indiscernibles in favor of nonqualitative thisnesses, it will not be hard to find examples that will provide support of great intuitive plausibility for primitive transworld identities and non-identities. (180b) 6 Thisness and Necessity If there are any transworld identities and non-identities, there
are necessary connections between thisnesses and some suchnesses. (181b) It is better to abandon the identification of necessity with analyticity and suppose that necessities de re are commonly synthetic. (181b) If a name is desired for the position I have defended here, according to which thisnesses and transworld identities are primitive but logically connected with suchnesses, we may call it Moderate Haecceitism. (182b)
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