A study on synonyms by analyzing to tell and its synonyms
A Study of Synonyms by Analyzing the meanings of the verb tell in Articles Supervisor: By Outline Introduction Rationale Objectives Scope of the study
Rationale Solicitor attorney Lawyer Prosecution Objectives Provide an overview of synonymy
Analyze the interchangeability of synonyms Scope of the study Oxford Learners Advanced Dictionary The verb to tell Some 60 articles
Literature review Definition of synonyms Same language Same part of speech Identical or nearly identical denotational meaning Interchangeable at least in some contexts (Arnold, 1986) Definition of synonyms
Differ in Morphemic composition Phonemic shape Shades of meaning Connotation Affective value, style, valency and idiomatic use (Arnold, 1986) Criteria of synonymy The notional criterion
The semantic criterion The criterion of interchangeability (Anstrushina et al., 1985) Sematic criterion Have the same denotation Differ in connotations To repeat
Denotation to tell sb To inform to tell sb To notify to tell sb To fill sb in to tell sb
Connotations about sth that you have heard or been told by somebody else about sth, often in a formal or official way about a fact or situation formally or officially about sth that has happened The criterion of interchangeability
Synonyms are interchangeable in at least some contexts Denotation E.g. to inform and to notify Connotations To repeat to tell sb about sth that you have heard or been told by somebody else There are synonyms that cannot
be interchanged To inform to tell sb about sth, often in a E.g. to repeat to inform formal to fill or sb official in way To notify to tell sb about a fact or situation formally or officially To fill sb in to tell sb
about sth that has happened Types of connotations Types of connotations Types of connotations Emotive connotation Connotation Causative
of duration connotation Dominant synonym A central word whose meaning is equal to the denotation common to all the synonymic group (Anstrushina et al., 1985) Dominant synonym Four main characteristic features:
Analysis Review Synonymic groups Definition Synonyms One example analysis Review 8 denotations Synonyms Connotation Articles from online newspapers Analysis
Analysis Review Synonymic groups Definition Synonyms Analyze one example Denotation 1 Definition: (of a person) to give information to sb by speaking or writing Synonyms: Report, inform, fill sb in, convey, communicate, relay, repeat,
break, brief, notify, enlighten, impart, alert sb to sth Connotation: Connotation of attendant feature Connotation of manner Denotation 1 Report He said he was off-duty and driving through Harrow, north west London, when he witnessed the disturbance and
had only pulled up alongside a line of police to tell them what he had witnessed. (Wardrop, 2012) Denotation 2 Definition: (of some writing, an instrument, a sign) to give information about sth Synonyms: Inform, notify, brief, convey, impart, enlighten Connotation: connotation of attendant features connotation of manner
Denotation 2 Notify People are being told by email that when they return from deployment they are going to have a year and then they are out. (McVeigh, 2011) Denotation 3 Definition: Order or instruct (someone to do something) Synonyms: Instruct, order, command, direct
Connotation: connotation of degree or intensity Denotation 3 Order Although Mr Paisley, now Lord Bannside, said in 2008 that he was not pressured to quit he has now claimed he was told to go. (Purdy, 2014 ) Denotation 4
Definition: Express in words Synonyms: Describe, recount, relate, report, chronicle, narrate, weave, unfold, cover Connotation: connotation of attendant features Denotation 4 Cover The Hudson River plane crash is one of the miracles of our time and we are
delighted to be the first to tell the story on UK television (Holmwood, 2009) Denotation 5 Definition: To know, judge or see sth correctly (not used in progressive tenses) Denotation 6 Definition: distinguish one thing or person from another Synonyms: Distinguish, differentiate Connotation: connotation of attendant circumstances
Denotation 6 Differentiate Scientists found volunteers who were previously unable to differentiate between two similar scents learnt to tell them apart when given electric shocks alongside just one of them. (Fleming, 2008) Denotation 6
The current system, established 200 years ago by Oxford when there were small numbers of undergraduates, makes it difficult to differentiate between students, according to employers. Large numbers of students now come out of university with a 2.1. which fails to distinguish between someone who attained 60 per cent and another who achieved 69.9 per cent. (Hodges, 2013) Denotation 7 (intransitive) have an effect on sb/sth
Denotation 8 Definition: (intransitive) (informal) to let sb know a secret Synonyms: blab, betray, finger, grass, inform on sb, turn Kings/ Queens evidence (BrE), turn States evidence (AmE), blow the whistle on sb, stab sb in the back Connotations: evaluative connotation
stylistic connotation connotation of attendant features Denotation 8 Blab If I let you into a secret, do you promise you won't tell anyone? (Freeman, 1999) Findings + Discussion Not all synonyms are equally interchangeable turn Kings/ Queens evidence (BrE), turn States evidence (AmE) grass, unfold, chronicle
Words similar in denotation and connotation are highly likely interchangeable Distinguish, differentiate, tell Findings + Discussion Not all synonyms are equally interchangeable turn Kings/ Queens evidence (BrE), turn States evidence (AmE) grass, unfold, chronicle Words similar in denotation and connotation are highly likely interchangeable E.g: Distinguish, differentiate, tell Findings + Discussion
Dominant synonym and synonyms in a synonymic group: interchangeability He had us in stitches he was a wonderful raconteur as he recounted how he and his fellow choristers had gone to the vicar, who had initially refused their demand of more than one shilling for weddings. (Montgomery, 2014) Recommendations Translation and interpretation
I told it to my sister, Lisa and she in turn told it to my sister Maggie. (Henderson B., 2012) Using the English English dictionaries + Thesaurus Recommendations In translation and interpretation I told it to my sister, Lisa and she in turn told it to my sister Maggie. (Henderson B., 2012) Using the English English dictionaries + Thesaurus
Conclusion Overview of synonymy Denotations and connotations of the verb tell and its synonyms analysis Findings Recommendations Limitations References Anstrushina, G.B., Afanasyeva, O.V. & Morozova, N.N. (1985). English Lexicology. Moscow, Russia: Pedagogiccal Institute of Ekaterinburg. Arnold, I.V. (1986). The English Word (3rd ed.). Moscow,
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