8 - storage.googleapis.com

8 - storage.googleapis.com

PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College CHAPTER 8 Joints: Part A Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. (a) Suture Joint held together with very short, interconnecting fibers, and bone edges

interlock. Found only in the skull. Suture line Dense fibrous connective tissue Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1a (b) Syndesmosis Joint held together by a ligament. Fibrous tissue can vary in length, but is longer than in sutures. Fibula

Tibia Ligament Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1b (c) Gomphosis Peg in socket fibrous joint. Periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket. Socket of alveolar process Root of tooth Periodontal

ligament Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1c (a) Synchondroses Bones united by hyaline cartilage Epiphyseal plate (temporary hyaline cartilage joint) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sternum

(manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable) Figure 8.2a (b) Symphyses Bones united by fibrocartilage Body of vertebra Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc Hyaline cartilage

Pubic symphysis Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2b Ligament Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Articular (hyaline) cartilage Fibrous capsule Articular Synovial capsule membrane Periosteum

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.3 Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Cavity in bursa containing synovial fluid Bursa rolls and lessens friction. Humerus head rolls medially as arm abducts.

Humerus resting Humerus moving (b) Enlargement of (a), showing how a bursa eliminates friction where a ligament (or other structure) would rub against a bone Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4b Acromion of scapula Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa

Joint cavity containing synovial fluid Fibrous articular capsule Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Hyaline cartilage Humerus

Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule (a) Frontal section through the right shoulder joint Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4a Gliding (a) Gliding movements at the wrist Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5a Hyperextension

Extension Flexion (b) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the neck Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5b Extension Hyperextension Flexion (c) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the vertebral column Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 8.5c Flexion Extension Flexion Extension (d) Angular movements: flexion and extension at the shoulder and knee Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5d Abduction

Adduction Circumduction (e) Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5e Rotation Lateral rotation Medial rotation (f) Rotation of the head, neck, and lower limb Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 8.5f Pronation (radius rotates over ulna) Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) (a) Pronation (P) and supination (S) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6a Dorsiflexion

Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Plantar flexion (b) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6b Inversion Eversion (c) Inversion and eversion Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 8.6c Protraction of mandible Retraction of mandible (d) Protraction and retraction Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6d Elevation of mandible Depression of mandible

(e) Elevation and depression Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6e Opposition (f) Opposition Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6f f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

c a b Plane joint (intercarpal joint) a e d Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7a f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial

Multiaxial b c Hinge joint (elbow joint) b a e d Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7b f

Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial c c b Pivot joint (proximal radioulnar joint) a e d Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7c

f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial c d b Condyloid joint (metacarpophalangeal joint) a e d Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 8.7d f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial e c Saddle joint (carpometacarpal joint of thumb) b a e

d Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial c f b Ball-and-socket joint (shoulder joint)

a e d Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7f Femur Articular capsule Posterior cruciate ligament Lateral meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament

Tibia Tendon of quadriceps femoris Suprapatellar bursa Patella Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa Synovial cavity Lateral meniscus Infrapatellar fat pad Deep infrapatellar bursa Patellar ligament (a) Sagittal section through the right knee joint

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.8a Anterior Anterior cruciate ligament Articular cartilage on lateral tibial condyle Articular cartilage on medial tibial condyle

Medial meniscus Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament (b) Superior view of the right tibia in the knee joint, showing the menisci and cruciate ligaments Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.8b Quadriceps femoris muscle Tendon of

quadriceps femoris muscle Patella Lateral patellar retinaculum Fibular collateral ligament Medial patellar retinaculum Tibial collateral ligament Patellar ligament Fibula Tibia

(c) Anterior view of right knee Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.8c Lateral Hockey puck Medial Patella (outline) Tibial collateral ligament (torn) Medial meniscus (torn) Anterior cruciate

ligament (torn) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.9 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Acromion of scapula Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Fibrous articular capsule Tendon sheath Synovial cavity

of the glenoid cavity containing synovial fluid Hyaline cartilage Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Humerus (a) Frontal section through right shoulder joint PLAY Animation: Rotatable shoulder

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.10a Acromion Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Coracohumeral ligament Coracoid process Articular capsule reinforced by glenohumeral

ligaments Subscapular Greater bursa tubercle of humerus Tendon of the Transverse subscapularis humeral muscle ligament Scapula Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle (c) Anterior view of right shoulder joint capsule

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.10c Articular capsule Synovial membrane Humerus Fat pad Tendon of triceps muscle Bursa Synovial cavity Articular cartilage Coronoid process Tendon of

brachialis muscle Ulna Trochlea Articular cartilage of the trochlear notch (a) Median sagittal section through right elbow (lateral view) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.11a Humerus Anular ligament Lateral epicondyle Radius

Articular capsule Radial collateral ligament Olecranon process Ulna (b) Lateral view of right elbow joint Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.11b Coxal (hip) bone Articular cartilage Acetabular

labrum Femur Ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres) Synovial cavity Articular capsule (a) Frontal section through the right hip joint Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.12a Ischium Iliofemoral

ligament Ischiofemoral ligament Greater trochanter of femur (c) Posterior view of right hip joint, capsule in place PLAY Animation: Rotatable hip Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.12c Torn meniscus

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.14

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