3 - West Ada School District / Homepage

3 - West Ada School District / Homepage

Chapter 3 Building Materials Objectives Describe the hardwood and softwood classifications. Define moisture content (M.C. and E.M.C.). Identify common defects in lumber. Define lumber grading terms. Calculate lumber sizes according to established industry standards. Explain plywood, OSB, hardboard, and particleboard grades and uses. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Objectives (Cont.) List precautions to observe while working with treated lumber. Identify types of engineered lumber and list their uses and advantages. Discuss the uses of light gage steel framing. Identify a variety of metal framing connectors and

indicate where each is used. Identify nail types and sizing units. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Lumber Natural or engineered sawmill products Boards used for flooring, sheathing, and trim Dimension lumber Timbers used for posts, beams, and stringers Specialty items Andy Dean Photography/Shutterstock.com Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible

website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Wood Structure and Growth Wood contains narrow cells called fibers or tracheids Lignin holds cells together Cambium is layer of cells just inside bark N.C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay

notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Annular Rings Growth layers that form each season Sapwood Contains living cells May be several inches thick Heartwood Formed as sap becomes inactive Copyright Goodheart-Willcox

Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Kinds of Wood Softwood comes from evergreen trees Douglas fir Southern pine Hardwood comes from broadleaf (deciduous) trees Beech Cherry

Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Cutting Methods Softwood Flat-grained Edge-grained Hardwood Plain-sawed Quarter-sawed

Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Moisture Content and Shrinkage Moisture content is percent of oven dry weight Free water Bound water Fiber saturation point

Wood shrinks most along direction of annual rings Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Equilibrium Moisture Content Point at which moisture in wood is balanced with that in air Moisture content (MC) is always changing

MC varies in different geographical areas Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Seasoning Lumber Seasoning Reducing MC of lumber to required level Air drying Kiln drying

Moisture content of wood can be determined Oven drying sample Using electronic moisture meter Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Lumber Defects Irregularities occurring in or on wood Reduce woods strength, durability, or usefulness

May detract from or improve the woods appearance Western Wood Products Assn. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Lumber Grades Softwood grades

Boards Dimension Timbers Factory and shop lumber Hardwood grades Firsts and seconds Selects Common Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox

be posted a publicly accessible website. Lumber Sizes Nominal dimension is Always used Rough unfinished measurement (width and thickness) Greater than dressed size Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright

Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Calculating Board Footage Board foot is unit of measure for lumber Formula for board feet T is thickness of board (in.) W is width (in.) L is length (ft.) bd. ft. = No. pcs. T W L 12 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website.

Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Panel Materials Plywood Thin sheets laminated to various thicknesses Composite plywood Veneer faces bonded to wood cores Nonveneered panels Particleboard Fiberboard Oriented strand board Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay

notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Grade-Trademark Stamp Quality grades for plywood Lettering system indicates veneer quality Name indicates intended use or performance rating APA trademark and grade stamp APA-The Engineered Wood Association Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co.,

Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Exposure Ratings Two basic categories Exterior type, 100% waterproof glueline Interior type, moisture-resistant glueline Durability classifications Exterior: Fully waterproof adhesives Exposure 1: Waterproof bond Exposure 2: Interior type with intermediate glue Copyright Goodheart-Willcox

Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Span Ratings of Plywood Span rating Maximum center-to-center distance between supports Example Sheathing may have span ratings of 24/0, 24/16, 40/20, or 48/24 APA-The Engineered Wood Association

Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. MDO and HDO Plywood MDO Exterior-type panel with 100% waterproof adhesive Readily accepts paint HDO Made with thermosetting resin-impregnated fiber

surface More rugged than MDO APA-The Engineered Wood Association Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Hardwood Plywood Grades Numbering system for faces and backs of panels

Symbols to indicate grade Core constructions Veneer core Lumber core Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Oriented Strand Board Made of individual flakes of wood Parts adhered to each

other with resins and glues Approved for variety of construction projects Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Composite Board Made of reconstituted wood with veneer on either side Widely used in modern construction

Sheathing Subflooring Siding Interior wall surfaces Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website.

Particleboard Used in cabinetwork Drawer bottoms Concealed panels in cases and chests Made of wood flakes, chips, and shavings Bonded together with resins or adhesives Used as base for veneers and laminates Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website.

Hardboard Made of refined wood fibers Pressed together to form hard, dense material Standard Tempered Tempered hardboard is filled with oils and resins Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Wood Treatments

Pressure-treated lumber Resists termites and fungal decay Used for outside jobs Identifying end tag or stamp Major types of liquid preservatives Waterborne Oilborne Creosote Southern Pine Council Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright

Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Safety Note Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) warning Treated wood should never be used where waterborne arsenical preservatives in treatment may become component of food, animal feed, or drinking water Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Handling and Storing Lumber Piles of framing lumber and sheathing Place on level skids raised above ground Cover with canvas, waterproof paper, or polyethylene film Finish lumber Open-stack with wood

strips for air circulation Handle with care to prevent soiling and scarring Wood panels Stack on level surface Keep ventilated Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Engineered Lumber

Wood structural units altered through manufacturing processes Stronger, straighter, and more dimensionally stable than sawn lumber Components glued together in different configurations Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Laminated-Veneer Lumber Produced much like plywood

Used as headers, beams, and columns Remains stable with predictable performance Can be stained or left exposed Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Glue-Laminated Beams Also called glulams

Made by gluing and applying pressure to layers Come in two types Balanced Unbalanced Made in custom and stock sizes Rik Vandermeulen, Unalam Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly

accessible website. I-Joists Have I shape Consist of flanges of structural composite lumber Light, straight, and strong Can have knockouts for plumbing and electrical services Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted

a publicly accessible website. Open-Web Trusses Sometimes used in place of floor joists Fabricated in factories from solid 2 4 lumber Allow installation of pipes and wiring via open webs Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly

accessible website. Parallel-Strand Lumber Made of 1 by 8 strands of veneer coated with adhesive Veneer strips form billets of various lengths Lumber yards cut billets to specified lengths Can be pressure-treated for outdoor use Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website.

Laminated-Strand Lumber Made of strands of wood bonded with polyurethane adhesive Available in two thicknesses: 1 1/4 and 3 1/2 Examples of use Door and window headers Rim joists in floors Core stock for flush doors with veneer overlays Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website.

Thinking Green Cutting custom and fabricated components at lumber mill Reduces jobsite waste Eliminates poor storage and other mishaps Reduces carpenter errors Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Light Gage Steel Framing Found in light commercial buildings and residential construction Attached to base and ceiling channels with screws Used for partitions and nonloadbearing walls Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay

notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Metal Framing Connectors Stamped brackets or strapping designed to make connections Wood-to-wood Wood-to-masonry Wood-to-concrete Tension bridging Metal corner braces Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox

Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Nails Available in range of types and sizes Common Box

Casing Finish Brad Come in size units called penny (abbreviated d) Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Screws

Greater holding power than nails Often used for interior construction Classified by Shape of head Surface finish Material from which they are made Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website.

Concrete Used in foundations and slab-on-grade construction Combination of several materials Portland cement Sand Crushed stone Water Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox

be posted a publicly accessible website. Adhesive Bonding Agents Carpenters use several bonding materials Glues come from natural materials Adhesives are developed from synthetic materials Cements and mastics are rubber-based Some have longer curing times than others Joints may need to be clamped securely during curing time Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright

Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Safety Note Never use flammable contact cement in building with open flames Space heater Kitchen range pilot light Furnace Fumes are very flammable and may result in explosion Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Mastics Include waterproofing materials and adhesives Liquids Pastes Vary in characteristics and application methods Usually packaged in metal or plastic containers or in gun cartridges

Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Open Time Amount of time between spreading material and when parts must be clamped Also called setting time Varies with temperature and humidity Adhesives easily spread at open times as indicated by manufacturer

Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website. Staples Used as fasteners for various applications Applied with Pneumatic staplers Electric staplers Hand staplers Available in various lengths, widths, and thicknesses (gages)

Come in different point types Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co.,Co., Inc.Inc. MayMay notnot be posted to atopublicly accessible website. Copyright Goodheart-Willcox be posted a publicly accessible website.

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