14.1 The origin of species is the source of biological diversity

14.1 The origin of species is the source of biological diversity

Ch. 14 The Origin of Species Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The origin of species is the source of biological diversity Speciation is the emergence of new species

Every time speciation occurs, the diversity of life increases Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. There are several ways to define a species The biological species concept defines a species as a population or group of populations whose members

have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring Reproductive isolation prevents gene flow and maintains separate species Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Reproductive barriers keep species separate Reproductive barriers serve to isolate a species gene pool and prevent interbreeding

Reproductive barriers are categorized as prezygotic or postzygotic, depending on whether they function before or after zygotes form Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Reproductive barriers keep species separate Prezygotic Barriers In habitat

isolation, two species live in the same general area but not in the same kind of place Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Reproductive barriers keep species separate Prezygotic Barriers In mechanical isolation, female and male sex organs are not compatible Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Reproductive barriers keep species separate Prezygotic Barriers In behavioral isolation, there is little or no sexual attraction between species, due to

specific behaviors Reproductive barriers keep species separate Prezygotic Barriers In gametic isolation, female and male gametes are not compatible

Reproductive barriers keep species separate Postzygotic Barriers Postzygotic barriers operate after hybrid zygotes are formed In reduced hybrid viability, most hybrid offspring do not survive In reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid offspring are vigorous but sterile The process of speciation depends on whether reproductive barriers prevent gene flow between populations

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. MECHANISMS OF SPECIATION Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. In allopatric speciation, geographic isolation leads to speciation In allopatric speciation, populations of the same species

are geographically separated, separating their gene pools Changes in the allele frequencies of each population may be caused by natural selection, genetic drift, and mutation, unaffected by gene flow from other populations Gene flow between populations is initially prevented by a geographic barrier The Grand Canyon and Colorado River separate two species of antelope squirrels

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. A. harrisi South A. leucurus North

In sympatric speciation, speciation takes place without geographic isolation In sympatric speciation, new species may arise within the same geographic area as a parent species Gene flow between populations may be reduced by factors such as polyploidy, habitat differentiation Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

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