INTEGRATED COURSE Unit 1 Unit 1 Planning your future career Content Starting out Reading Focus
Reading More Practical Translation Focused Writing Final Project Starting outTask 1 Task 1 Step One Work together with your partner and fill in the table with the attributes that you think make a good employer and a good employee on page 2. Starting outTask 1 Reference:
A good employee Common to both A good employer a strong sense of responsibility good health good verbal skills loyalty to and respect for
employers being intelligent and creative decisiveness being diligent a sense of humor assertiveness being obedient great
communication skills cooperativeness good ability of financial management good ability in dealing with interpersonal relationships Starting outTask 1 Step Two Choose the most important three attributes for people in each role, and give your reasons.
Reference: employee: good health, cooperativeness employer: good health, great communicative skills, ***Good health is the foundation for career development, whatever role one plays. For an employee, cooperativeness ensures the smooth progress of a work project, since many projects involve the cooperation of many workers. As an employer, he must be good at Communicating with different people, which is the guarantee of a pleasant interpersonal relationship in his business, along with the successful building up of the social network. Starting outTask 1 Step Three Based on your work done in the previous two steps, tell
each other what you would like to be after graduation, an employer or an employee? Give reasons for your choice. Words or phrases for your reference: run a business, in possession of business, be tolerant of be considerate of , ambitious, a sense of achievement manage, endure, confident, good-tempered, cooperative open-minded, punctual, positive, flexible, generous Starting outTask 2 Task 2 Read the four cases of job hopping on page 2 and judge whether they are beneficial or disadvantageous to the persons concerned.
Starting out Task 3 Read the following two pieces of parental advice on page 3 and discuss with your partner which one you would follow. Starting outTask 3 1. Whatever you decide to do with your life, make sure its something practical. You will want to be able to make a good living for yourself and your family. 2. We dont care what you set
out to study; just make sure its something you enjoy. Starting out Job market in US This years college graduates in US are faced with a hard test of job market . Listen carefully to a report on the high unemployment rate for American youth this summer and do the following exercise: Starting out Exercise Directions: Based on the report youve just heard, tell whether the following statements are True or False, make corrections if they are
false. 1. The unemployment rate of people at 20 to 42 age bracket in May was 14.7%, five tenths percentage points lower than the national rate . 2. According to NACE, employment situation in 2007 was more optimistic, with more college graduates finding jobs and with a higher starting pay than in this year. 3. Taking an internship program is an effective way to catch public attention. 4. Job market predictions tells that in the next 8 years graduates with a degree in biomedical engineering are promising to secure a good job. 5. Sarah Kramer found a job with a major IT company in
Washington, after applying to about a hundred and fifteen jobs and going on fifty interviews. Starting out Exercise Directions: Based on the report youve just heard, tell whether the following statements are True or False, make corrections if they are false. 1. The unemployment rate of people at 20 to 42 age bracket in May was 14.7%, five tenths percentage points lower than the national rate . F Correction: The unemployment rate of people at 20 to 24 age bracket in May was 14.7%, five percentage points higher than the national rate. 2. According to NACE, employment situation in 2007 was more
optimistic, with more college graduates finding T jobs and with a higher starting pay than in this year. Starting out 3. Taking an internship program is an effective way to catch public attention. F Correction: Taking an internship program is an effective way to get noticed , and then a job. 4. Job market predictions tells that in the next 8 years graduates with a degree in biomedical engineering are promising to secure a good job. T 5. Sarah Kramer found a job with a major IT company in Washington, after applying to about a hundred and fifteen jobs and going on fifty interviews. F
Correction: Sarah Kramer found a job with a major consulting company in Washington, after applying to about a hundred and fifty jobs and going on fifteen interviews. Starting out Audio script Job Marketan Extra Hard Test for New College Graduates 10 June 2010 This is the VOA Special English Economics Report. June means one more big test for many students finishing college -a test of the job market. Wish them luck. Americans age twenty to twenty-four faced an unemployment rate in May of fourteen and seven-tenths percent. That was five percentage points higher than the national rate.
This week, Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke said his "best guess" is for a continued economic recovery. But the central bank chief expects unemployment to remain high for some time because of slow job creation. So where does that leave this year's graduates? Starting out Audio script The National Association of Colleges and Employers says about onefourth of those who applied for a job have found one. NACE says that is up a little from last year. But the number is down sharply from two thousand seven, the year before the financial crash. Starting pay is also down. Josh Safran graduated from American University in Washington with a business degree. He is still looking for a job. (JOSH SAFRAN) "Once you get noticed by a company, it gets a lot easier, but its so hard to get noticed because theres so many people
looking for so few jobs." One way to get noticed is through an internship program, says Reuben Smith-Vaughn, another graduate of American University. Starting out Audio script (REUBEN SMITH-VAUGHN) "I know I personally got my job that way. And the people that worked there before me got their jobs that way. So I think its a key when getting a job." Internships may offer little or no money. Some students even pay for them. But NACE says ninety-two percent of the employers it asked had plans to hire interns this year. The Occupational Outlook Handbook published by the Labor Department offers job market predictions through twenty eighteen. The highest growth is expected in biomedical engineering.
Twenty-two year old Sarah Kramer just got her degree in biomedical engineering from Columbia University in New York. She found a job with a major consulting company in Washington. But her search was not easy. Starting out Audio script (SARAH KRAMER) "I started in August before my senior year. And I set up appointments with career services. I applied to about a hundred and fifty jobs. I went on maybe fifteen interviews." Ms. Kramer says many of her friends have not found jobs. Many have chosen to go to graduate school instead. But she has suggestions for students entering their final year of college who want
a job when they graduate. (SARAH KRAMER) "Well, advice for a rising senior is to start early. Take advantage of your career services at your school as much as you can. And dont give up, and just keep applying to as many jobs as you can. Starting out Audio script Josh Safran says he may have to do what a growing number of recent college graduates are doing. (JOSH SAFRAN) Worst-case scenario, if I dont find a job by the end of August, I move back with my parents."
Reading Focus Traits of the Key Players Reading Focus 1 Viewing 2 Global Understanding 3
Detailed Information 4 Critical Thinking 5 Language Points 6 Vocabulary in Action
Viewing Watch a movie clip from a movie The Pursuit of Happiness, then work on the following questions: 1.What do you think about Chris Gardner? 2.Would you hire Chris Gardner if you were the boss? Click the picture Reading MoreGlobal Understanding Introduction Paras. 1-3 Traits of key players Paras. 4-12
Reading Focus Global Understanding Introduction What does the term key players refer to Question A: _________________________________________? Answer: Key player refers to ___________________________ a handful of staff you can count _____________________________________________. on in a given area of expertise to get the job done How do companies recruit key players Question B: __________________________________________? Answer: Companies recruit their staff either by hiring key players from another company __________________________________________, or
_____________________________________________ from newbies who seem to have the same traits as ________________ those top people. Reading Focus Global Understanding Trait 1: The selfless collaborator A. Importance of the trait: According to John Fetzer, _____________________________ one cant succeed in an industry ____________________________________________________. environment without the mindset of being collaborative and selfless B. Ways of developing the trait: a. ___________________________________________________
Working together with scientists from other labs and disciplines __________________________________________________. in pursuit of a common goal b. ___________________________________________________ A liberal use of the pronoun we and not just I, when _________________________________________________. describing your accomplishments c. __________________________________________________ To develop a reputation inside your lab and with people your lab collaborates with as a person who fosters and initiates ____________________ this quality gets mentioned by collaborationsand make sure __________________________
those who will take those reference phone calls ____________________________________________________. Reading Focus Global Understanding Trait 2: A sense of urgency Importance of the trait: one way that companies win the According to Don Haut, __________________________________ ______________________________________________________ competition that happens 24/7/365 is to get there faster. This ______________________________________________________ trait is a requirement not only for people who can act quickly, ______________________________________________________ but for those who can think fast with the courage to act on their ______________________________________________________.
own conviction Reading Focus Global Understanding Trait 3: Risk tolerance Importance of the trait: A. __________________________________________________. Being OK with risk is something that industry demands Supporting evidence: a. _________________________________________________. Quotation from one of the clients in a job description b. _________________________________________________. What Don Haut says B. __________________________________________________ Companies consistently look for candidates who can be _________________________________________________.
wrong and admit it Supporting evidence: a. ________________________________________________ Failure is important because it shows you were not afraid ________________________________________________. to take chances b. What Don Haut says. Reading Focus Global Understanding Trait 4: Strength in interpersonal relationships Importance of the trait: A. __________________________________________________ For people in business roles, interpersonal abilities make the difference between success and failure __________________________________________________.
Supporting evidence: According to Rick Leach, _____________________________ working for a business requires __________________________________________________. skills. B. It people would be a mistake to assume that _____________________ strong people skills are __________________________________________________. required only for business people Supporting evidence: _________________________________ The key players who succeed in their work ___________________________________________________ at the bench in industry environment in great measure depends
___________________________________________________. on their ability to work with a broad variety of personalities Reading Focus Detailed Information Task 2 Choose the sentence that best expresses the meaning of the sentence from the text. (P12) Key: 1 2 6 7
B B 3 8 A C 4 9 5 10
D B B B D B Reading Focus Critical Thinking Reading FocusCritical Thinking
Step One The following short paragraphs are taken from the text. Read each of them carefully and give your comments. 1. Its teamwork, says Fetzer. The business environment is less lone-wolf and competitive, so signs of being collaborative and selfless stand out. You just cant succeed in industry without this mindset. 2. For my organization, a candidate needs to be comfortable discussing his or her failures, and he or she needs to have real failures, not something made up for interview day. If not, that person has not taken enough risk. says Haut. Reading FocusCritical Thinking Step Two
Discuss in groups the following questions. 1. Suppose you were a recruiting manager, whom would you like to hire, key players from other companies or newbies who have just graduated from universities? Give your reasons. 2. According to the four traits of a key player that the author writes about, where would you like to work after graduation, in academia or industry? Tell each other both the advantages and disadvantages of working in these two different environments. Reading Focus Language Point 1. Every company has a handful of staff in a given area of expertise that you can count on to get the job done. (Para. 1) staff: (n.) the group of people who work for an organization
e.g. There is a good relationship between staff and pupils at the school. staff e.g. The staff has been cut by a quarter over the past year. The staff are not very happy about the latest pay increase. Reading Focus Language Point be on the staff of: be a member of
e.g. He is on the editorial staff of the New York Times. staff (v.) 1. provide with staff e.g. How may employees will it take to staff this resort? We have not enough money to staff all our schools. 2. serve on the staff of e.g. Most of our offices are staffed by volunteers. Reading Focus Language Point expertise (n.) special skill or knowledge e.g.
A foreign coach has special knowledge and expertise. We are amazed at his expertise on the ski slope. expertise (n.) expert (n.; adj.) expert at dress-making. My mother is an ______ expert I thought your handling of the situation was ________. expertise in French history. Mary has considerable _________ Reading Focus Language Point 2. We hold them up to the standards we see in our top
people. (Para. 2) Paraphrase: We evaluate them by the standard traits our key players show to us. hold sb./sth. up to: subject sb/sth. to sth. unpleasant, such as test, mockery etc. e.g. A critic often holds up a book to ridicule or contempt. Reading Focus Language Point 3. It deserves repeating because it is the single most public difference between academia and industry. (Para. 4)
deserve: (v.) be worthy of e.g. You deserve a promotion after all the hard work you have done. I think they deserve to be congratulated. single Used before the superlative most emphasizes that this is the most public difference between academia and industry e.g.: The Middle East is the worlds single most important source of oil. Cigarette smoking is the single most likely cause of lung cancer.
Reading Focus Language Point 4.The business environment is less lone-wolf and competitive, so signs of being collaborative and selfless stand out. (Para. 4) The sentence means: Compared with academia, the business environment requires less capability in doing individual research and there are less competitions among individual workers, so people or behaviors showing the traits of being collaborative and selfless are easily recognized. Reading Focus Language Point
lone wolf: someone who prefers to be alone e.g. He is a lone wolf, apparently wanting no friends and seeking no man. lone wolf stand out: to be very noticeable e.g. We had lots of good applicants for the job, but one stood out from the rest. Reading Focus Language Point 5. Many postdocs and grad students have a tough time showing that they can make this transition because so much of their life has involved playing
the independent researcher role and outshining other young stars. (Para. 5) Paraphrase: Many postdoctors and graduate students find it very hard to adapt themselves to this transition since they have devoted much of their life to doing independent research work and trying to do better than their peers. Translate Reading Focus Language Point
involve 1) imply, make necessary e.g. The operation involves putting a small tube into your heart. 2) implicate person in charge, crime etc. e.g. The four men were all involved in organizing and carrying out the murders. 3) include sb. or sth. in sth. or to make them take part in or feel part of it e.g. Do we need to involve someone from the computer department at this stage in our discussion? Reading Focus Language Point
outshine: (v.) to be better or more impressive than sb. or sth. else e.g. Several new players outshone the veterans. out : 1) doing better than e.g. She outran him. 2) being or becoming bigger, further, greater than someone or something else e.g. Shes outgrown her clothes. She outlived her brother. 3) outside or beyond something e.g. an outbuilding outlying areas
Reading Focus Language Point 6. You can make yourself more attractive to companies by working together with scientists from other laboratories and disciplines in pursuit of a common goaland documenting the results on your rsum. (Para. 5) in pursuit of a common goal during the process of pursuing a common goal. and documenting the results on your rsum. result (n.) : the achievement of something e.g. She certainly knows how to get results. For best results, always use fresh ingredients when you
are cooking. Reading Focus Language Point document: (n.) a paper or set of papers with written or printed information, esp. of an official type. e.g. A document certifying ownership. I stamp the document. (v.) prove by or support with documents such as references, certificates and credentials. e.g. His interest in cricket has been well-documented by
the media. Reading Focus Language Point 7. In a business, you need to understand the process, but you end up falling in love with the answer and then take a risk based on what you think that answer means to your business. (Para. 9) falling in love with the answer means being much interested in the answer
Reading Focus Language Point end up 1) to be finally in a particular situation, state, or place , after a series of events e.g. Most slimmers end up putting weight back on. Anyone who swims in the river could end up with a nasty stomach upset. 2) arrive e.g. If you drive your car like that, youll end up in hospital. 3) finish e.g.
The politician finally ended up his speech. Reading Focus Language Point 8. The scientist who is transitioning into the business world must prioritize his or her relationship assets above their technical assets. (Para. 11) prioritize (v.) :to put things in order of importance so that the most important ones are done first e.g. When you have twenty tasks for the day, all of them urgent, its not easy to prioritize them.
Reading Focus Language Point asset: (n.) 1) the things a company owns,that can be sold to pay debts ( ) e.g. a corporation with $9 billion in assets the value of a companys assets 2) something or someone that is useful because they help you secceed or deal with problems e.g.
A sense of humor is a great asset in this business. I think Rachel would be an asset to the department. Reading Focus Language Point prior; priority; prioritize prior to 1) He had showed no signs of being in pain ______ suffering a heart attack. priority to large businesses when 2) Banks usually give _______ deciding on loans. prioritized 3) The public wants to see the fight against crime ________.
Reading Focus Language Point 9. To suddenly be valued and measured by your mastery of human relationships can be a very scary proposition for a person who has been valued and measured only by his mastery of things, says Rick. (Para. 11 ) To suddenly be valued and measured by your mastery of human relationships For a person who has been estimated and evaluated only by his skillfulness in dealing with the physical world, it is a very frightening prospect to be suddenly estimated and evaluated by the skillfulness in building up human relationships. proposition (n.): problem, opponent, prospect e.g. Finding a buyer for this old car is not an easy proposition. The proposition of working all night was quite depressing.
Reading Focus Language Point 10. Indeed, the key players Ive met who work at the bench in industry have succeeded in great measure because theyve been able to work with a broad variety of personalities, up and down the organization. (Para. 12) bench: a long heavy table used for working on with tools or equipments e.g. a carpenters bench
Reading Focus Language Point in (a) great /some measure e.g. The children were given a great measure of independence. He is in some measure rather careless. measure , degree, extent, scope, domain Most writers, to a greater or less _________, degree incline to the second view. To what________ extent are you willing to help me? Many words are outside the ________of scope this dictionary.
The doctor works in the _________of public domain. domain Reading Focus Language Point personality (n.): 1. someones character, especially the way they behave towards other people e.g. He was an ambitious man with strong personality. 2. someone who is famous often appears in newspapers , on television etc, especially an entertainer or sports person e.g. One of the most well-liked TV personalities
3. someone who has a very strong character and is very different from other people e.g. He was a dynamic personality in the business world. Reading Focus Language Point personality person people human personality in the district.
He is quite a___________ person make another It is a horrible thing to see one ________ suffer. peoples Ireland was inhabited by two ________. people people He lived for the ________ and died for the _______. humans That was the beginning of the life of us _________. Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action Task 1
Choose the answer that is closest in meaning to the underlined word in the sentence. (P.15) Key 1- A 2- C 3- B 6- D 7- D 8- C 11- A 12- B 4- C 5-D 9- A 10-D Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action Task 2
Read the words and their explanations in the box in page 16. Choose a word to complete each of the sentences below and explain its meaning. Change the form if necessary. 1. Details of the highly sensitive information have not been made publicc _____________. disciplineb 2. Working at home requires a good deal of ____________. strengtha 3. He never ceased to be amazed by her physical ___________. referencea to previous research on the 4. The article made no _____________ subject. 5. The great ____________ strengthd of our plan lies in its simplicity.
6. The palace and its grounds are open to the __________ publica during the summer months. demonstratedb outside the courtroom during the 7. Supporters _______________ trial. Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action 8. I didnt enjoy studying PhilosophyI found it too much of a theoretical ____________________. disciplinec 9. Ask your teacher to act as one of your _____________. referencesc 10. He said he left the company because of a ______________ clash with the personalitya
director. 11. Different cultures have different ways of _______________ their discipliningd children. 12. The study _______________ the link between poverty and malnutrition. demonstrates a will not be a criminal offence if it can 13. The disclosure of the information be shown that it was in the __________ interest. 14. The book will become a standard work of ______________. 15. Its partly the architecture which gives thepublicd town its _________________. referenceb
personalityc Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action Task 3 Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate word from the box. Change the form if necessary. (P17) prioritize prioritize cite cite demonstrate demonstrate discourage discourage
pay pay teamwork teamwork credit credit setting setting adjust adjust rule rule pursuit employment pursuit employment The independence-versus-interdependence issue has been written about regularly and is often introduced as the major
employment : issue separating the two worlds of scientific 1)___________ academic and industrial. For decades, academia has 2) paid _______lip service to the idea of collaboration, but the adjust incentive-and-reward system has been slow to 3)_________ . Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action prioritize prioritize cite cite demonstrate
demonstrate discourage discourage pay pay teamwork teamwork credit credit setting setting adjust adjust rule rule pursuit employment pursuit
employment Despite the widespread interest in collaboration and its obvious value in an academic 4)_______ setting , collaboration remains informal discouraged by the tenure process, in which and is actually 5)____________ credit for their work scholars are penalized for sharing 6)________ with others. Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action prioritize prioritize cite cite
demonstrate demonstrate discourage discourage pay pay teamwork teamwork credit credit setting setting adjust adjust rule rule pursuit employment
pursuit employment Large-scale academic collaboration has taken place successfully in the past; the Manhattan Project and contemporaneous radar research, and numerous experimental particle physics projects, to 7) cite just a few examples, are not perhaps academic in the purest ______ demonstrate that academic scientists can play sense, but they 8)___________ well with others. More recently, new systems biology studies are bringing a sense teamwork of 9)____________ into academic life science labs, but there have
been some growing pains. Still, in most of academic scienceincluding the life science rules the lone wolf still 10)___________. Reading More Why Do We Work? Reading More 1 2 3 4
Global Understanding Critical Thinking Language Points Vocabulary in Action Reading MoreGlobal understanding Text Exploration Complete the following extract with information from the text. We work for money, but also for sanity. Lawyers expect to be well nonmonetary ways. The key compensated in dollars, also in 1)____________ elements of noneconomic compensation include: 1. Professional identity recognizing professional
Law firms pay psychic compensation by 2)___________ prerogatives, providing lawyers with autonomy in matters of due to professional judgment, and affirming the special respect 3)____ adhere to ethical standards in all of their professional lawyers who 4)______ dealings. Whats more, they need to take care not to impinge on considered professional judgment. This is lawyers exercise of 5)__________ equally important to professional autonomy. 2. Personal pride self-affirmation Lawyers compensate themselves with the powerful 6)____________ impede the of a job well done. For an elite firm, its unwise to 7)_______
drive to excellence, even when its not cost effective in the short term. Reading MoreGlobal understanding 3. Idealism thirst for justice is an important element of Slaking lawyers 8)_______ psychic compensation. An elite firm supports pubic service efforts, thereby compensating its professionals, and 9)___________ discharging its institutional obligations to society at the same time. 4. Recognition Both formal and informal recognition is called for in psychic rendering of which requires a little extra compensation, the 10)__________
effort on the part of management. serve To 11)________ the purpose, different forms of acknowledging achievement such as elaborate dinners, parties, casual events, formal ceremonies award programs, 12) ____________ of public recognition, even a congratulatory e-mail or phone call are among the choices. Reading MoreGlobal understanding 5. Institutional pride belonging of Giving lawyers cause to be proud to be 13) ___________
the firm is the final element of psychic compensation. This commit itself to requires the management to 14)________ building the firm as an integrated and thriving institution. In sum, to attract top legal talent, law firm managers must 15)_________ attend to both the physical and psychic needs of their lawyers. Reading More Critical Thinking Reading MoreCritical Thinking
Discuss in groups the following questions. 1. Do you agree with the quotation from Theodor Reik Work and lovethese are the basics. Without them there is neurosis? Why or why not? 2. Suppose you were a lawyer, among the four points mentioned in the text that are related to the concept of professional identity, which is the most important to you? And which is the least important? Give your reasons. 3. What is the relationship between the institutional pride of a company and the personal pride of its employees? How can any conflict be resolved? Reading More Language Point 1. Why do we work? For money, but also for sanity.
(Para. 2) sanity(n.) : 1) the condition of being mentally healthy e.g. She wondered if she was losing her sanity. 2) the condition of being reasonable and sensible e.g. Sanity appears to be returning to the stock market. I took a vacation to try to recover my sanity. Reading More Language Point 2. Many lawyers define themselves with reference to
the privileges and attributes of their profession. (Para.3) paraphrase: Many lawyers interpret themselves in terms of the privileges and attributes the profession provides. Reading More Language Point 1) define: (v.) to describe something correctly and thoroughly, and to say what standards, limits, qualities etc it has that make it different from other things e.g. the ability to define clients needs
The duties of the post are difficult to define. 2) to explain exactly the meaning of a particular word or idea e.g. Ill now try to define the term popular culture. with/in reference to: in connection with, about e.g. I am writing to you with reference to your letter of 15 March. Reading More Language Point
3. In this regard, firms should encourage a diversity of approaches, letting each lawyer develop his or her own style of practice. (Para. 5) in this regard: relating to something you have just mentioned e.g. 1)The companys problems, in this regard, are certainly not unique. 2)The union is the largest in the country and in this regard is best placed to serve its members. Reading More Language Point 4. Empowering lawyers in this way inculcates a heightened sense of personal responsibility, which in turn reinforces
the drive for individual excellence. (Para. 5) Empowering lawyers in this way em-, en- embed (fix in surrounding mass); embody (give concrete form to); encamp (settle in camp); encircle( surround); encode (put into code) heighten, -en hearten (make or become more cheerful); lengthen (make or become longer); strengthen (make or become stronger) Reading More Language Point inculcate: to fix ideas, principles etc in someones mind e.g. 1) I try to inculcate a sense of responsibility in my children.
2) Not all schools manage to successfully inculcate a love of learning. reinforce v. 1. to give support to an opinion, idea, or feeling, and make it stronger e.g. 1) The film reinforces the idea that women should be pretty and dumb. 2) His behavior merely reinforced my dislike of him. 2. to make part of a building, structure, piece of clothing etc stronger e.g. The pockets on my jeans are reinforced with double stitching. Reading More Language Point 5. A lawyer is well-paid with the confidence that the firm will stand behind him or her in such circumstances. (Para. 6)
that the firm will stand behind him or her in such circumstances. confidence in/under circumstances: circumstances such, appropriate, all, present e.g. 1) He was found dead in suspicious circumstances. 2) The rules can only be waived in exceptional circumstances. 3) Is he dangerous? He might be-under some circumstances. no, in/under no circumstances e.g. 1) In no circumstances must a soldier leave his post. 2) I made my mind up that under no circumstances could
I agree to such a principle. Reading More Language Point 6. Most lawyers find self-worth in setting an exampleboth within the profession and within the larger societyas ethical actors. (Para. 7) Paraphrase: Most lawyers find self-worth in setting an example as ethical actors, both within the profession and within the larger society . ethical actors means people who demonstrate moral standards to the public. Reading More Language Point
make ( it to): 1. to arrive at or reach successfully e.g. 1) She made (it to) the airport just in time to catch her plane. 2) He made it to the bed and then collapsed. 2. to be very successful e.g. She is very ambitious, but I dont think shell ever really make it. Reading More Language Point for the sake of someone /for someones sake:
1. in order to help or bring advantage to someone e.g. 1)John and Mary stayed together only for the sake of the children. 2)Its entirely for your own sake that I am speaking. 2. because of, for the purpose of e.g. 1)Lets not disagree for the sake of a few pounds. 2)You are arguing just for sake of arguing. Reading More Language Point 7. Few of us make it through the rigors of a legal education without having a deeply internalized sense
of excellence for its own sake. (Para. 8) This sentence means: Few people would manage to be like this: after enduring the hardship of legal education in law school, they still dont feel a deep sense of excellence, which is so deep that it has been part of their character, and it is a pure sense of excellence, not affected by anything else. Reading More Language Point 8. As a matter of both compensation and reputation, an elite firm cannot afford to impede the drive to excellence, even when its not cost effective in the short term. (Para. 9) cannot afford to do sth.: must not do sth. because it could cause
serious problems e.g. 1) We cant afford to wait any longer or we will miss the plane. 2) He cant afford to offend his employer. Reading More Language Point cost effective, cost-effective (adj). bringing the best possible profits or advantages for the lowest possible costs e.g. 1) The most cost-effective way of reducing carbon dioxide emission.
2) The procedure is quick, easy to use and cost effective. in the term: for aperiod of time in the future e.g. 1) Taking this decision will cost us more in the short term, but will beneficial in the long term. 2) While in the short term the outlook is very uncertain, the Irish economy remains fundamentally healthy. Reading More Language Point 9. This means, for example, that firm management should applaud the writing and rewriting of a brief to the highest standard even when a cynical perspective would suggest that the extra effort will have no practical effect. (Para. 9)
a cynical perspective means people who hold a cynical point of view. Reading More Language Point cynical: (adj.) 1. unwilling to believe that people have good, honest or sincere reasons for doing something e.g. 1) Ive always been deeply cynical about politicians. 2) With that cynical outlook, he doesnt trust anyone. 2. tending to use the weaknesses or feelings of others to ones own advantage e.g. She works in that most cynical of industries, the advertising industry. cynic: (n.) someone who doesnt trust or respect the goodness of other people and their actions, believing hat people are interested only in themselves. e.g.
Im too much of a cynic to believe that hell keep his promise. Reading More Language Point 10. Almost by definition, an elite law firm supports pro bono and public service efforts, thereby accomplishing the intertwined goal of compensating its professionals and discharging its institutional obligations to society. (Para.12) Paraphrase: It is intrinsically characteristic of a top-flight law firm to support volunteer social work and public service efforts, which helps it to reach the interrelated goal of rewarding its professionals and performing its duties to society as an institution at the same time.
Reading More Language Point discharge: (v.) 1) to do or pay what you have a duty to do or pay e.g. The trustees failed to discharge their duties properly. 2) to fire a gun or shoot an arrow e.g. A soldier accidently discharged his weapon. 3) to send out gas, liquid, smoke etc or to allow it to escape e.g. Rainwater collects here and then discharges into the river Kennett. 4) to officially allow someone to leave, or to tell them they must leave e.g. Hospitals now tend to discharge patients earlier than in the past.
Reading More Language Point discharge: (n.) 1) When you officially allow someone to leave somewhere e.g. Nurses visit the mother and baby for two weeks after their discharge from the hospital. 2) When someone performs a duty or pays a debt e.g. the discharge of the colleges legal responsibilities 3) When gas liquid smoke etc is sent out, or the substance that is sent out e.g. the discharge of toxic waste into the sea
Reading More Language Point 11. Institute formal award programs. Stage ceremonies of public recognition. (Para. 13) Institute and stage both are used as verbs here. institute: (v.) to introduce or start a system, rule, legal process etc e.g. We had no choice but to institute court proceedings against the airline. stage: (v.) to organize a public event e.g. Activists staged a protest outside the parliament. Exhibitions staged in Paris.
Reading More Language Point 12.When firm management commits itself to building the firm as an integrated institution, with strong institutional values, and when the firm thrives as an institution, belonging to the firm becomes its own reward. (Para.14) commit sb. to/to doing: to say that somebody will definitely do something or must do something e.g. 1) He has clearly committed his government to continuing down the path of economic reform. 2) Nobody committed themselves to a definite answer.
Reading More Language Point an integrated institution or system etc refers to such an institution or system that combines many different groups, ideas, or parts in a way that works well e.g. 1) an integrated public transport system 2) a racially integrated community thrive: (v.) to become very successful or very strong and healthy e.g. 1) Plants that thrive in tropical rainforests
2) A business which managed to thrive during a recession Reading More Language Point 13. Of course, this requires management to foster a corporate identity that subsumes individual egosthe greater good of the group must take precedence. (Para.15). subsume (v.) to include someone or something as member of a group or type, rather than considering it separately e.g. A wide range of offences are usually subsumed under the category of robbery.
Reading More Language Point precedence: the condition of being dealt with before other things or of being considered more important than other things. e.g. 1) Precedence must be given to the injured in the evacuation plans. 2) Business people often think that fluency and communication take precedence over grammar when speaking. Reading More Language Point
14. And the firm as an institution must meet the highest standards in every area: excellent corporate citizenship, superb client service, selfless public service, outstanding reputation. (Para.15) corporate citizenship: also known as Corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate responsibility, responsible business, sustainable responsible business (SRB), or corporate social performance, is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. Essentially, it is the deliberate inclusion of public interest into corporate decision-making, and the honoring of a triple bottom line: People, Planet, Profit. Reading More Vocabulary in Action
Task 1 Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate form of the word given and explain its meaning. 1. Observe A. It was_________ observed that 40% of patients had high blood pressure. v. to see and notice something observed B. Keynes __________that human beings fall into two classes. v. to say or write what you have noticed about a situation C. Too many accidents are occurring at work because observing safety regulations. employers are not __________ v. to do what you are supposed to do according to a law
or agreement Reading More Vocabulary in Action 2. label A. ________ Labels on clothes should be removed for kids with sensitive skin. n. a piece of paper or other material that is attached to something and gives information about it B. She carefully ________ labeled each jar with its contents and the date. v. to attach a label onto something or write information on something labeled slow usually get less attention from C. Children who are _______
teachers. v. to use a word or phrase to describe someone or something, but often unfairly or incorrectly Reading More Vocabulary in Action 3. engage engage in regular exercise. A. Only 10% of American adults ________ v. to be doing or to become involved in an activity was engaged as a junior clerk at a very low wage. B. Paul ____________ v. to employ someone to do a particular job engaged C. Have you heard? Sally and Ray are getting _________. v. (two people) having agreed to marry
engaging personality has helped make her D. Her __________ televisions favorite talk-show hostess. adj. pleasant and attracting your interest Reading More Vocabulary in Action 4. attribute A. The fall in the number of deaths from heart disease is attributed to improvements in diet. generally _________ v. to believe or say that a situation or event is caused by something attributes should a good manager possess? B. What __________ n. a quality or feature, especially one that is considered to be good or useful
attributed to Giotto. C. This, and the remaining frescoes, are not ________ v. to believe or say that someone was responsible for saying or writing something, i.e. painting a famous picture, etc. Reading More Vocabulary in Action 5. drive Driving a Rolls Royce into a swimming pool was one of A. ________ the most dangerous stunts Crawford had to perform. v. to make a car, truck, bus etc move along B. The government must continue this _______ drive to find new, cleaner forms of energy. n. an effort to achieve something, especially an effort by an
organization for a particular purpose drive to become a good lawyer. C. Greg certainly has the _______ n. determination and energy to succeed Reading More Vocabulary in Action 6. exercise exercise into your daily routine. A. Try to fit some regular________ n. a set of questions in a book that test a students knowledge or skill B. The ________in exercises Chapter 3 are helpful for students learning the future tense. n. physical activities that you do in order to stay healthy and become stronger
C. People who can _______ exercise some control over their surroundings feel less anxious. v. to use a power, right, or quality that you have Reading More Vocabulary in Action 7. term term in office would A. It was always clear that Schmidts third ______ prove a difficult one. n. a fixed period of time during which someone does something or something happens term B. The exams are at the end of the summer _______. n. one of the periods of time that the school or university year
is divided into termed a temporary employee, now he is a member C. He had been ________ of permanent staff. v. to give a name to or describe something with a particular expression Reading More Vocabulary in Action 8. discharge discharged from the Army due to A. Several of the recruits were __________ medical problems. v. to officially allow someone to leave somewhere, especially the hospital or the army, navy, etc., or to tell them that they must leave discharge their duty with
B. The president called upon the soldiers to ________ honor. v. to do or pay what you have a duty to do or pay discharges from Spring C. All and dispositions of radioactive waste _________ fields were within relevant limits. n. something coming out of a substance from inside somewhere Reading More Vocabulary in Action 9. minor minor changes to the program. A. We have made some _______ adj. small and not very important or serious, especially compared with other things minored/minors in political science.
B. Sid ______________ v. to study a second main subject as part of university degree minors C. This film contains material unsuitable for __________. n. someone who is below the age at which they become legally responsible for their actions Reading More Vocabulary in Action 10. stage stage in our two countries A. This treaty marks an important _______ relationship. n. a particular time or state that something reaches as it grows or develops B. The orchestra was restricted to a semicircle in view of the needs of
stage Roman drama and, in front of this was a raised _______. n. the raised area in a theatre which actors or singers stand on when they perform stage the concert, including C. It cost thousands of pounds to _______ performers fees and the hire of equipment. v. to organize a public event Reading More Vocabulary in Action 11. foster A. The couple wanted to adopt the black child they had been ________. fostering v. to take someone elses child into your family for a period of
time but without becoming their legal parent fosters B. Recent studies show that advertising usually ______ competition and therefore lowers prices. v. to help a skill, feeling, idea, etc. develop over a period of time C. Half a million American children are in foster _____ care at any given time. adj. related by or concerned with fostering Reading More Vocabulary in Action 12. firm firm of accountants in London. A. Edward got a job with a ______
n. a business or company, especially a small one firm before you climb up. B. Make sure the ladder feels ______ adj. strongly fixed in position, and not likely to move firm with her or shell try to take advantage C. You need to be ______ of you. adj. (people) behaving in a way showing that they are not going to change their mind, or that they are the person taking control Reading More Vocabulary in Action Task 2 Complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese in
brackets into English. Try to use the expressions you have learned from the text. due to you as a bonus 1. The sum of $20 is _______________________________ ( ). in recognition of his 2. He had just received a doctorate ______________________ contributions to psychology ( __________________________ ). serves a purpose 3. Insurance is only valuable if it _____________________ ( ). Reading More Vocabulary in Action
attended to in due course 4. Dont worry, everything will be ______________________ ( ). takes precedence 5. This problem should be discussed first, as it ______________ _____________________ ( ). over all the others for a celebration ( 6. Youve been promoted? This calls _________________ ). thirsted for a few new books ( 7. The scholars mind _________________________ ).
Reading More Vocabulary in Action 8. I am writing to you__________________________________ with reference to the job opening ________________ in your department ( ). Mary has a great diversity of interests ( 9. _______________________________ ), she like sports, travel, photography and making radio sets. committed themselves to boosting profits 10. The banks have __________________________________ ( ) by slashing costs.
Practical Translation 1 who, which, tha t when, where, as : 1. , 2.
1. A man may usually be known by the books he reads as well as by the company he keeps. he reads he keeps 2. But if you put down a book you dont like and try another till you find one that means something to you, and then relax with it, you will almost certainly have a good time.
3. The Westerner who developed a farm, opened a shop, or set up in business as a trader, could hope to prosper only as his own community prosperedand his community ran from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada down to Mexico. 4. His famous will, in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding work in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.
5. People are still talking about the historic events of several years ago, when man took his first walk in space. 6. They are looking for a city where the standard of living is high and the cost of living is low.
where city 7. They act mostly on suggestions from present members, of whom four are women. 4 8. If you are looking for fun and adventure, you might want to try the Mystery Express, which runs from New York to Montreal, Canada. This trip interests people who have always wanted to play a role in an Agatha Christie play or a Sherlock Holmes detective novel.
people Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese. Pay particular attention to the adverbial clauses. Paragraph One Business happens 24/7/365, which means that competition happens 24/7/365, as well, says Haut. One way that companies win is by getting there faster, which means that you not only
have to mobilize all of the functions that support a business to move quickly, but you have to know how to decide where there is! This creates a requirement not only for people who can act quickly, but for those who can think fast with the courage to act on their convictions. This needs to run throughout an organization and is not exclusive to management. Translation for Reference: 365 7 24 365 7 24
Paragraph Two Lastly, professional status encompasses adherence to ethical standards. Most lawyers find self worth in setting an example both within the profession and within the larger societyas ethical actors. When management affirms the special respect due to lawyers who act with the utmost integrity and civility in all of their professional dealings, it provides yet another form of compensation. Paragraph Two
Focused Writing Narrative Essays Focused Writing Writing Skill When writing a narrative essay, bear in mind the following principles: 1) Point of view If its your story, use I; If its a story about what happened to a friend or group of friends including yourself, use we. If it is about someone else or about something, use he, she or
it. Be consistent. Retain the perspective throughout. Focused Writing Writing Skill 2) Sequence or order Use the conventions found in any story: a plot the characters a climax an ending Use flashback to make a narrative interesting. 3) Tense In most cases, use the past tense. Sometimes, the present and future are also used.
Focused Writing Writing Skill 4) Dialogue The advantages: Bring the characters alive; Make the story meaningful and realistic Notes: Words of each character, enclosed in quotation mark, are treated as a separate paragraph; Sometimes, indirect speeches can also be used. Focused Writing Writing Skill Two extremes to be avoided: Telling the story event by event, without descriptive details, explanation and dialogue.
Telling the story with complex description but no plot. Final Project Final Project Role-play Step One: Marvin Blum manages his own law firm. He finds that his firm encounters difficulty in retaining lawyers. Two of the seven lawyers have recently quit, and another employee is said to be hopping to a prestigious firm. Hes complaining to his father-inlaw, a retired senior lawyer from Ben & Johnson, one of the elite law firms in the local area. His
father-in-law points out sharply that the problem stems from his ignorance of lawyers psychic needs. Final Project Role-play the conversation between Marvin Blum and his father-in-law with your partner. Marvins problem seems to focus on three aspects: the declining business increasing complaints from the clients disloyal staff The following sentence patterns are for your reference: 1) The firm pays them a salary higher than 2) There are also other benefits such as 3) Do you ever think of what they need besides 4) When I was working as a lawyer in Ben & Johnson
5) We had our own say in Final Project Your conversation could go like this: Father-in-law: So, hows your firm doing, Marvin? Marvin: Not so good, as a matter of fact, much worse than I expected. I just dont know why Father-in-law: Try not to worry, tell me whats up? Marvin:
Final Project Step Two Enlightened on how to encourage his lawyers, Marvin decides to adopt a new style of management. He calls a meeting with his board members and tells them about the new measures hes going to take. The board members question his motivation for each measure. Imagine you are Marvin Blum, deliver a speech on how to reform the management style in the firm, and your partners will act the role of the board members who ask you questions. The following words and expressions are for your reference: Its high time that Whats the point of working prioritize cannot afford
interfere it isthat counts environment reputation Thank You!